Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols on Liver Enzymes and Wellness in WomenRead the full article
Journal of Sports Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of sports medicine.
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Sleep Quality’s Effect on Vigilance and Perceptual Ability in Adolescent and Adult Athletes
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sleep quality in cognitive domains of perceptual ability after exhausting exercise in adolescent and adult athletes. Eighty-six male professional soccer players were included in our study and divided into two groups: adolescents (age: 17.3 ± 0.2 yrs, body mass: 68.9 ± 7.9 kg, body fat: 9.9 ± 3.6 %) versus adults (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 yrs, body mass: 76.5 ± 7.2 kg, body fat: 10.3 ± 3.1 %). For each athlete, prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), anthropometric and morphological characteristics were recorded and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was answered. Immediately after CPET, all athletes underwent the perceptual ability test (PATest) for 30 sec and the sum of hits (rep/30 sec) and the time between a visual stimulus and the following stimulus (mean reaction time; RT, sec) were recorded. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort and in anaerobic threshold showed differences between hits () and RT (). The variable of PSQI questionnaire “had bad dreams” showed correlation with hits () and RT () and the RT showed correlation with variables “cannot breathe comfortably” () and “...enthusiasm to get things done” (). Adolescents showed poorer sleep quality (PSQI score: 5.7 ± 3.6 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6) compared to adults and slower reaction time (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 sec, ) compared to adolescent athletes with PSQI score ≥5.5. The variable of PSQI score in adolescents is related to HR in maximal effort (r = −0.364, ) and in adults is related to speed (r = −0.335, ). Perceptual ability, which requires sustained attention, vigilance, and motor coordination, is often negatively affected by restricted sleep, especially in adolescents.
Evidence That Sleep Is an Indicator of Overtraining during the Competition Phase of Adolescent Sprinters
Although sleep disturbance is a common complaint in overtrained athletes, the role of sleep in the overtraining process is not clear. This study aimed (i) to compare sleep efficiency/quantity at the start of a competition phase in elite adolescent sprinters who adapted to prior training with that in those who maladapt and (ii) to examine the influence of prior training, fatigue, and sleep on performance through a moderated mediation model. Fatigue (via Profile of Mood State) and internal training load (via session rating of perceived exertion and duration of training as volume) were measured in 20 sprinters (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years) across 4 mesocycles (baseline (T1); preparatory (T2); precompetitive (T3); and competitive (T4) phases), over 26 weeks. Performances were assessed during the competitive period (T3, T4), while sleep was monitored (via actigraphy) for a week during T4. It was inferred that sprinters who had increasingly greater fatigue and concomitant decrements in performance (35%) were maladapted to training and the remaining sprinters who improved fatigue and performance (65%) were adapted to training. Sleep efficiency (91 ± 3% vs. 82 ± 3%, ) and quantity (425 ± 33 min vs. 394 ± 20 min, ) at the start of T4 were significantly greater in sprinters who adapted. Moreover, higher prior training volume (mean of T1 to T3 training volume) was associated with lower sleep efficiency at the start of T4 (R2 = 0.55, ) which was associated with poorer performance (R2 = 0.82, ). Fatigue moderated the indirect effect of prior training volume on performance through its moderation of the effect of sleep efficiency on performance (R2 = 0.89, ). Impaired sleep as a result of greater prior training volume may be related to performance decrements through fatigue. Athletes should improve sleep during periods of higher training volume to reduce fatigue for better adaptation to training.
Delivering Evidence-Based Online Concussion Education to Medical and Healthcare Professionals: The Concussion Awareness Training Tool (CATT)
Background. Medical and healthcare professionals report an important gap in their training and knowledge on concussion diagnosis and management. The Concussion Awareness Training Tool (CATT) for medical professionals provides evidenced-based training and resources, representing an important effort to fill this gap. The goal of the current article was to summarize and describe the general uptake of the 2018 relaunch of the CATT for medical professionals and to present results of a quality assurance/quality improvement (QA/QI) assessment including qualitative feedback from medical and healthcare professionals. Methodology. Tracking completions via certificates and Google Analytics were used to measure uptake over the first two years following the 2018 relaunch and promotion of CATT for medical professionals. Medical and healthcare professionals who had completed the CATT from the time of the relaunch on June 11, 2018, to July 31, 2019, were invited via e-mail to participate in the survey-based QA/QI assessment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Results. Year 1 saw 8,072 pageviews for the CATT for medical professionals landing page, increasing to 9,382 in Year 2. Eighty-nine medical and healthcare professionals who had completed the CATT for medical professionals participated in the QA/QI assessment. Results showed that 85% of respondents reported learning new information about concussion; 73% reported changing the way they diagnose, treat, or manage concussion; and 71% reported recommending the CATT to colleagues. Qualitative data also indicated highly favourable opinions and experiences. Conclusions. The CATT for medical professionals has demonstrated promise as a tool to promote knowledge translation practice and help fill the gap in concussion training and knowledge reported by medical and healthcare professionals.
The Effects of Supersaturated Hydrogen-Rich Water Bathing on Biomarkers of Muscular Damage and Soreness Perception in Young Men Subjected to High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise
High-intensity eccentric exercise can cause a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), a short-term condition characterized by muscle damage and tenderness that might hold up recovery and jeopardize exercise routine. Previous studies indicated that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) might be a helpful topical intervention to boost recovery in musculoskeletal medicine, yet no data are available concerning the effectiveness and safety of whole-body bathing with supersaturated HRW after DOMS-inducing exercise. This study evaluates the effects of a single-session bathing with HRW on biochemical markers of muscular damage in healthy young men. The six volunteers who were exposed to DOMS-inducing eccentric exercise were assigned to either supersaturated HRW or control whole-body bathing in a double-blind crossover design. Immediately after an exercise session, the participants were immersed up to the neck into a 200 L bathtub with supersaturated HRW (8 mg of H2 per L) or control water (no hydrogen) for 30 min. Blood biomarkers of inflammation and muscular damage and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores for muscle soreness were assessed at baseline (before exercise) and at 24-hour follow-up. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference between two groups in serum creatine kinase (CK) response over the period of intervention (). A single-session bathing in HRW prevented a rise in circulating biomarkers of muscular damage induced by exercise at 24-hour follow-up, retaining the levels of all biomarkers similar to the baseline values (). On the other hand, serum CK, aldolase, and aspartate transaminase were significantly elevated at 24-hour follow-up as compared to the baseline levels after the control bath (342 ± 309 U/L vs. 465 ± 295 U/L; ). HRW bath also induced a significant drop in VAS scores for muscle soreness in comparison with control water, both immediately after an intervention (32.7 ± 8.6% vs. 20.0 ± 12.8%; ) and at 24-hour follow-up (31.6 ± 24.3% vs. 22.4 ± 27.5%; ), respectively. No participants reported any major side effects during the trial. This pilot study suggests that the whole-body bathing in supersaturated HRW is a safe procedure that attenuates muscular damage and can ease sore muscles after high-intensity eccentric exercise.
Fibrosis following Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury: Mitigation and Reversal Potential in the Clinic
Skeletal muscle injuries occur often in athletics and in daily life. In minor injuries, muscles are able to regenerate completely and recover their functional capabilities. However, in the case of severe injuries, the injured muscle cannot recover to a functional level because of the formation of fibrous scar tissue. The physical barrier of scars is significantly challenged in both research and clinical treatment. Fibrous scar tissue not only limits cells’ migration, but also contributes to normal tissue biomechanical properties. This scar formation creates an unsuitable environment for tissue structure resulting in frequent pain. Antifibrosis treatment is one of the major strategies used to augment muscle regeneration and accelerate its functional recovery. This review will discuss the currently available methods for improving muscle regeneration with a specific focus on antifibrosis applications. We also discussed several novel hypotheses and clinical applications in muscle fibrosis treatment currently in practice.
The Main and Interactive Effects of Biological Maturity and Relative Age on Physical Performance in Elite Youth Soccer Players
The main and interactive effect of biological maturity and relative age upon physical performance in adolescent male soccer players was considered. Consistent with previous research, it was hypothesised that participants of greater maturity or born earlier in the selection year would perform better in terms of physical performance tests. This cross-sectional study consisted of 84 male participants aged between 11.3 and 16.2 years from a professional soccer academy in the English Premier League. Date of birth, height, weight, and parental height were collected. Sprint, change of direction, countermovement jump, and reactive strength index were considered for physical performance. Relative age was based on the birth quarter for the selection year. Maturity status was based upon the percentage of predicted adult height attained. Linear regression models highlighted that maturation was associated with performance on all but one of the physical performance tests, the reactive strength index. In contrast, relative age only served as a significant predictor of performance on the countermovement jump. This study indicated that physical performance (in the tests studied) seems to be related to the biological maturity status of a player but not their relative age. This finding is important because it suggests that early-maturing players perform better in the majority of physical performance tests, and the commonly held belief that relative age effect influences performance may be overstated.