Article of the Year 2021
Formalin Fixation as Tissue Preprocessing for Multimodal Optical Spectroscopy Using the Example of Human Brain Tumour Cross SectionsRead the full article
Journal of Spectroscopy publishes research into the theory and application of spectroscopy across all disciplines, including biology, chemistry, engineering, earth sciences, medicine, materials science, physics, and space science.
Chief Editor Dr Daniel Cozzolino is based at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research focuses on the developments of chemometric and spectroscopic methods for use in agriculture and food applications.
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Feasibility Study on the Use of a Portable NIR Spectrometer and Multivariate Data Analysis to Discriminate and Quantify Adulteration in Fertilizer
The rise in population growth worldwide requires efficient management of agricultural lands through the correct determination of authentic fertilizers. In this current study, a rapid on-site detection technique was developed by using portable NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 740–1070 nm together with optimum multivariate algorithms to identify fertilizer integrity (unexpired, expired, and adulterated) as well as quantify the levels (10–50%) of adulteration. NIR models were built based on support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) for identification, while different types of partial least square regression (PLS, iPLS, Si-PLS, and GaPLS) were used for quantification purposes. The models were evaluated according to identification rate (Rt), coefficient of correlation in prediction (Rpre2), and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). For the identification of the integrity of the fertilizer, among the mathematical pretreatments used, the first derivative (FD) together with SVM gave above 99.20% identification rate in both calibration and prediction sets. For the quantification of the adulterants, Si-PLS was found to be superior and showed an excellent predictive potential of Rpre2 = 0.95–0.98 and RMSEP = 0.069–0.11 for the two fertilizer types used. The overall results indicated that a handheld NIR spectrometer together with appropriate algorithms could be employed for fast and on-site determination of fertilizer integrity.
Reduction of Background Fluorescence from Impurities in Protein Samples for Raman Spectroscopy
Background fluorescence remains the biggest challenge in Raman spectroscopy because of the consequent curvature of the baseline and the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal. While the concentrations of the fluorophore impurities are usually too low to be detected by other analytical methods, they are often sufficient to prevent Raman data collection. Among the different existing methods to remove the fluorescence signal, photobleaching remains the most popular due to its simplicity. However, using the spectrometer laser to photobleach is far from optimal. Most commercially available instruments have little or no choice of wavelength, and their output powers are in many cases not suitable for highly fluorescent samples such as those from biological systems (e.g., proteins). In this article, we assess practical aspects of photobleaching such as the apparent reversibility of the process and the effect of convection currents due to what we speculate to be temperature gradients across the bulk of the solution. We also introduce an affordable custom made external photobleaching unit with a choice of excitation wavelength and demonstrate its viability with a highly fluorescent bovine serum albumin protein solution, which had proved most challenging for Raman spectroscopy as it contained ∼10% w/w impurities.
A New Method for Spectral Wavelength Selection Based on Multiple Linear Regression Combined with Ant Colony Optimization and Genetic Algorithm
Wavelength selection is one of the key steps in quantitative spectral analysis, which reduces the computation time while also improving the prediction accuracy of the model. In this paper, we propose a wavelength selection algorithm based on the ant colony optimization (ACO), in which the absolute value of the regression coefficient of the multiple linear regression (MLR) model is used as the basis for evaluating the importance of wavelengths, and the absolute value of the regression coefficient after full wavelength MLR modeling is used as the initial pheromone value of the ant colony optimization (MLR-ACO). In each iteration, the absolute value of the regression coefficient corresponding to each wavelength of the individual with the highest fitness value is used as the basis for a pheromone update. The crossover operator is introduced in MLR-ACO (MLR-ACO-GA), and the individuals with the top 100 fitness values in MLR-ACO are used as the initial population of the genetic algorithm (GA). A selected frequency of wavelengths greater than the threshold among MLR-ACO individuals is calculated. A number of coarse interval points are generated according to the selected frequency, and a coarse crossover operation is performed at the coarse interval points. Fine crossover points are randomly generated within the coarse interval, and fine crossover operations are performed within the coarse interval to exploit the potential of combining excellent individuals in MLR-ACO with each other as much as possible. MLR-ACO can well solve the problem of traditional ACO initial pheromone scarcity, and MLR-ACO-GA can avoid MLR-ACO falling into a local optimum to a certain extent and be more flexible in the selection of the number of wavelengths, which can give full play to the advantages of MLR-ACO.
Simple Determination of Gemifloxacin Levels in Human Plasma using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Gemifloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent of the fluoroquinolone class, is used to treat bacterial infections, including acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a simple and robust analysis of gemifloxacin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was prepared using simple protein precipitation procedures with acetonitrile and separated using the Gemini C18 column with a mobile phase (0.1% formic acid: 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile = 78: 22 (V/V)). Moxifloxacin was used as an internal standard. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. Each precursor ion of gemifloxacin and moxifloxacin was monitored at m/z 390.1/402.1, and their product ions were monitored at m/z 372.3/384.4. The calibration curve showed linearity in 0.005–5 μg/mL with an appropriate correlation coefficient (≥0.99). The variation coefficient of intra- and interprecision values of gemifloxacin was <15%. The intra- and interaccuracy values ranged from 85% to 115%, except for the lower limit of quantification (accuracy range: 80%–120%). The proposed method was performed with a simple preparation step, and moxifloxacin, which is easily accessible, was used as the internal standard. These results suggest that the present assay is a practical analytical method and, therefore, can be readily applied for analysis, including in pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of gemifloxacin.
Evaluation of a Peak-Free Chemometric Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Method for Direct Rapid Cancer Detection via Trace Metal Biomarkers in Tissue
The ability to perform direct rapid analysis in air and at atmospheric pressure is a remarkable attraction of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the diagnostic quantification of disease biomarker metals in body tissue. However, accurate trace analysis is limited by matrix effects and a pronounced background that masks the subtle (peak-free) analyte signals because tissue plasma is dense and most lines are optically thick. In this work, a peak-free chemometric LIBS method based on a single-shot (for rapidity and nondestructiveness) and an artificial neural network multivariate calibration strategy with spectral feature selection was evaluated for its utility for direct trace quantitative analysis of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mg), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in model soft body tissue. The spectral signatures corresponding to the biometals (so-called because the metals are intrinsic to tissue biochemistry) were generated by spiking their known human-body-representative concentrations in molten paraffin wax. The developed multivariate analytical model achieved ≥95% accuracy as determined from the analysis of oyster tissue-certified reference material. The analytical models were tested on the liver, breast, and abdominal tissue biopsies. The results of applying the model to the clinical tissues indicated the absence or presence (including severity) of cancer as either malignant or benign, in agreement with the pathological examination report.
Measurement of Phenolic Compounds by Spectrometry and Chromatography in Lime Juices
Juice demand has been increasing at a rapid rate in recent years, and one of the major efforts underway to meet this demand is to minimize changes during the juice process. Due to the high consumption of juice and the carcinogenicity of synthetic and chemical substances, this research uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry to detect fake juices. For the detection of fraud, the tests of sodium and potassium content along with determining the amount of flavonoids (hesperidin and eriocitrin) were carried out using spectrophotometry and HPLC. The results showed the average amount of total polyphenol was from 32.4 to 42.6 mg L-1. The total polyphenol content in all samples conformed to the standard, and there was no significant difference between the samples and the standard. The amounts of flavonoids (hesperidin and eriocitrin) in the juice samples were below the standard level (a minimum of 90 and 20 g/mL, respectively). Also, there was a significant difference between the mean sodium and potassium content of standard versus feigned juices. Generally, the amount of hesperidin, eriocitrin, Na+, and K+ as diagnostic biomarkers of natural juice in all samples was below the standard level. All the analysed samples in the experiment were nonstandard. There is a lot of fraud in the juice business, so it has been suggested that the government should have more control over how manufacturing companies make juice.