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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2013, Article ID 468509, 9 pages
Research Article

Rapid Analysis of Geographical Origins and Age of Torreya grandis Seeds by NIR Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition Methods

1Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection & Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Chuxiong Normal University, Chuxiong 675000, China

Received 26 March 2013; Accepted 27 May 2013

Academic Editor: Lu Yang

Copyright © 2013 Lu Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper develops a rapid method for discriminating the geographical origins and age of roasted Torreya grandis seeds by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis and pattern recognition. 337 samples were collected from three main producing areas and produced in the last two years. The objective of geographical origins analysis is to discriminate the seeds from Fengqiao with a protected geographical indication (PGI) from those of another two provinces. Age classification is aimed to detect the old seeds produced in the last year from the freshly produced ones. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) was used to develop classification models, and the influence of data preprocessing methods on classification performance was also investigated. Taking second-order derivatives of the raw spectra proves to be the most proper and effective preprocessing method, which can remove baselines and backgrounds and reduce model complexity. With second derivative spectra, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.939 and 0.871 for age discrimination, respectively. Perfect classification was obtained, and both sensitivity and specificity were 1 for discrimination of geographical origins.