Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2013, Article ID 803592, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/803592
Research Article

Chemiluminescence of Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Induced by Direct Chemical Oxidation and Ionic Liquid-Sensitized Effect as an Efficient and Green Catalyst

1Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 47416-95447, Iran
2Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari 48175-861, Iran
3Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 47416-95447, Iran

Received 30 May 2013; Revised 2 October 2013; Accepted 17 October 2013

Academic Editor: Dhananjay Bodas

Copyright © 2013 Seyed Naser Azizi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method was proposed for doping water-soluble Mn in ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as CL emitter. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solution. These nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The CL of ZnS QDs was induced directly by chemical oxidation and its ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution was then investigated. It was found that oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide, could directly oxidize ZnS QDs to produce weak CL emission in basic solutions. In the presence of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper, a drastic light emission enhancement was observed which is related to a strong interaction between Cu2+ and the imidazolium ring. In these conditions, an efficient CL light was produced at low pH which is suggested to be beneficial to the biological analysis. The CL properties of QDs not only will be helpful to study physical chemistry properties of semiconductor nanocrystals but also they are expected to find use in many fields such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and multicolor labeling probes.

1. Introduction

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, better known as quantum dots (QDs), are prospective materials for a wide variety of applications. QDs are characterized by a unique set of optical properties that primarily arise from quantum confinement effects [1, 2]. Luminescent properties of semiconductor nanocrystals are usually investigated by photoluminescence (PL) produced using photoexcitation [3], electrochemiluminescence (ECL) generated by electron injection [4, 5], and cathodoluminescence given from electron impact [6]. In recent years, CL and related analysis techniques have been utilized in different fields such as biology, bioimaging, biotechnology, and analytical technology because of their widespread liner range, simple instrument, and lack of background scattering light interference [7]. With development and recent advance of nanotechnology, the CL study has been extended to nanoparticle systems from traditional molecular systems. Today, the CL systems that involved nanoparticles have attracted an increased consideration because of the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles [8].

Recently Zhou et al. described that ZnS QDs could enhance CL signals emitted from interaction of NaClO with H2O2 in basic medium [9]. Xiao’s group prepared different types of ZnS QDs and has reported their effects on H2O2-NaIO4 CL system [10]. Wang et al. found that CdTe could enhance the CL emission of luminol-KMnO4 [11]. Sun et al. found that QDs could sensitize the CL of Ce(IV)-sulfite [12]. Chen et al. and Frigerio et al. discussed the mechanism of QDs in CL reactions and summarize the applications of QDs-based CRET in detection of small biological molecules, DNA and protein analysis, cell imaging, and immunoassays [13, 14]. Our group also reported the effect of CdS QDs on the CL of hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydrogen carbonate system [15].

However, the CL property of QDs as emitting species of the CL reactions is rarely studied. Talapin et al. [16] firstly observed the CL emission of QDs when adding H2O2 to CdSe/CdS (core/shell) nanocrystals in solution and in nanoparticulate layers; following Talapin’s observation, Wang et al. [17], Liu et al. [18], and Li et al. [19] reported the CL of CdTe and CdS QDs directly oxidized by H2O2 in basic media, respectively. At the present stage, the efficiency of the nanoparticle CL system is much lower than that of the traditional luminol or bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate system [16].

On the other hand, in the reported QDs CL system, high concentration H2O2 (1 mol L−1 [17] or 0.8 mol L−1 [19]) was used as the CL oxidant, and high concentration H2O2 is very easy to decompose, which would thus result in unstable CL signal. These disadvantages of the QDs CL system will limit its application. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the CL properties of QDs by using appropriate catalyst. But the catalyzed chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of QDs as emitting species is rarely reported. Recently Wang et al. reported catalyzed effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on CdTe QDs-KMnO4 CL system [20]. Kang et al. investigated the influence of various surfactants on the CdTe QDs-H2O2 system [21]. Enhancement of CL emission for the purpose of higher sensitivity is necessary for application in trace analysis. Zhang et al. have reported many prominent works about noble metal nanoparticles-catalyzed CL systems. It has been demonstrated that gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles could greatly enhance a series of CL reactions including luminol-H2O2 [22], luminol-AgNO3 [23], lucigenin-KI [24], and tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium-cerium(IV) [25]. Recently Santafé et al. firstly reported the catalyzed chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate/copper as catalyst, have provided new avenues to enhance the inherent sensitivity, and expand new applications of this mode of detection [26]. So in the present study, we introduce a new ionic liquid/copper catalyst on the CL reaction of QDs. Mn-doped ZnS QDs which is one of the classic semiconductor nanocrystals was synthesized in aqueous solution and used as a model to investigate CL properties of QDs as light emitter.

The aim is to introduce the beneficial effect of imidazolium ring- based ionic liquids (Figure 1) on signal amplification for the catalyzer of the CL system and to improve the efficiency of nanoparticle CL, which is lower than that of luminol- or bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate-based systems. It will be helpful to promote the step of QDs’ application in various fields such as bioassay and trace detection of analyte. Organic compounds containing reducing groups of OH, NH2, or SH can react with oxygen-containing intermediate radicals [27, 28]. In this proposed Mn-doped ZnS QDs-H2O2 CL system, some intermediate radicals such as and were formed during the CL reaction. Therefore, some biologically small molecules containing OH, NH2, or SH groups are expected to compete with Mn-doped ZnS QDs for active oxygen intermediates, and a decrease in CL intensity may be found. So the Mn-doped ZnS QDs- H2O2 CL system is applicable for the determination of such compounds.

803592.fig.001
Figure 1: Structure of the 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid (IL) [(1,3-Pr2im)Br].

2. Experimental Section

2.1. Reagents and Chemicals

All the reagents or solvents were of analytical grade and used without further purification. Ultrapure water (deionized and doubly distilled) was used throughout. ZnSO4·7H2O and L-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous were from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). MnCl2·4H2O, CuCl2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, %) were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). Na2S·9H2O was from Acros (Geel, Belgium). 0.1 M phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) with various pH values were prepared by dissolving an appropriate amount of Na2HPO4 in water and adjusting the pH values with 0.1 M HCl or NaOH solutions. Fresh working solutions of H2O2 were prepared daily from 30% () H2O2 and were standardized by titration with a standard solution of KMnO4.

2.2. Characterization Techniques

X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded on a Bruker AXS D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer (Bruker, Germany) with Cu Kα radiation ( Å). Size distribution of Mn-doped ZnS QDs was performed on Hydrosol Nanoparticle size analyzer and Zeta Potential Analyzer (Malvern, UK) which is based on a dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The FT-IR spectra (4000–400 cm−1) in KBr were recorded using FT-IR spectrometer (Tensor 27-Bruker). UV-Vis absorbance spectra of Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals were obtained from aqueous Mn-doped ZnS QDs solutions using a Cecil CE5501 spectrophotometer (Cambridge, UK). Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were recorded on a Perkin Elmer LS-3B Luminescence Spectrometer (Waltham, USA) using 10 mm quartz cuvettes. The CL light intensity time curve was obtained on Berthold detection systems, Sirius-tube luminometer (Pforzheim, Germany). PL quantum yields of QDs were calculated by comparing their integrated emission to that of the standard dye solutions. Optical density of all solutions was adjusted to values below 0.1 at the excitation wavelength to avoid reabsorption effects [29]. All optical measurements were carried out at room temperature.

2.3. Synthesis of Aqueous Mn-Doped ZnS Quantum Dots

Colloidal water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized via arrested precipitation in water as described previously with slight modifications [30]. Briefly, 50 mL of 0.02 M L-cysteine, 5 mL of 0.1 M ZnSO4, and 1.5 mL of 0.01 M MnCl2 were added into a three-necked flask. The mixed solution was adjusted to pH 11 with 1 M NaOH and stirred under dry nitrogen at room temperature for 30 min. Then, 5 mL of 0.1 M Na2S was quickly injected into the solution. The mixture was stirred for another 20 min, and then the solution was aged at 50°C under air for 2 h to form L-cysteine capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Purification of the QDs was carried out by precipitation of the nanoparticles with ethanol in a centrifuge at 5000 rpm for 5 min (the procedure was repeated for 3 times). The obtained QDs were dried under vacuum and stored as a water soluble brown solid powder. Finally, the purified QDs were redissolved in water for further experiments.

2.4. Procedure for the Preparation of 1,3-Dipropylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid (IL)

1,3-Dipropylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was synthesized according to the procedure reported previously [31]. Briefly, N-trimethylsilylimidazole (12.6 mL, 0.0858 mol), 1-bromopropane (21.7 mL, 0.239 mol), and toluene (28 mL) were refluxed for 10 h and the crystalline product was isolated by the filtration. 1,3-Dipropylimidazolium bromide was dissolved in dry acetonitrile and admixtures were removed by hexane extraction. After acetonitrile removal the product was dried in vacuo for 5 h; yield was 14.2 g (71%), mp 135. 1H NMR (acetone-d6): δ = 0 : 89 (t, 6H, CH3, (HH) = 7.6 Hz), 1.95 (m, 4H, CH2CH2CH3, (HH) = 7.2 Hz), 4.49 (t, 4H, NCH2, (HH) = 7.2 Hz), 8.15 (s, 2H, H4, 5 (Imidazole)), 10.27 (s, 1H, H2 (Imidazole)). Anal. Calcd for C9H17N2Br (232.9): C, 46.37%; H, 7.29%; Br, 34.30%; N, 12.02%. Found: C, 44.09%; H, 7.25%; Br, 30.29%; N, 11.90% [32].

2.5. Analytical Procedure for CL Detection

Assays were performed in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer with a 330 μL final volume. Briefly, cells were filled with solution A that was made by 230 μL of an aqueous solution of IL, copper, phosphate buffer, and Mn-doped ZnS QDs (appropriate concentrations in water). The mixture was shaken thoroughly and equilibrated at room temperature for 5 min. Then 100 μL of a solution of complementary reagents (various concentration of hydrogen peroxide) were injected to initiate the light emission and the chemiluminescence spectrum was recorded. The CL signal kinetics is identical in the presence and in the absence of IL.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Characterization of Mn-Doped ZnS QDs

The XRD pattern of Mn-doped ZnS QDs exhibited a cubic structure with some peaks for (111), (220), and (311) planes (Figure 2). No diffraction peaks from manganese impurities were detected. The average size (D) of ZnS nanoparticles can be calculated according to Scherrer’s equation [33]: where is a constant (shape factor, about 0.89), is the X-ray wavelength (0.15418 nm), is the full width at half maximum, and is the diffraction angle. Based on the full width at half-maximum of (111) reflection, the averaged crystallite sizes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs was estimated to be 4 nm approximately.

803592.fig.002
Figure 2: XRD patterns of Mn-doped ZnS QDs aged at 50°C for 2 h.

The size and distribution of Mn-doped ZnS QDs particles were examined by DLS. Figure 3 shows the scattering intensity distribution of nanocrystals dispersed in water at room temperature. It was found to be aggregate free. The average hydrodynamic size was determined from the DLS data and was 11 nm, thus suggesting that the nanoparticles dispersed well in water. The hydrodynamic diameters were larger than those of the cores due to the solvatation layer around the QDs in aqueous solution [34, 35].

803592.fig.003
Figure 3: Particle size distribution of Mn-doped ZnS QDs measured by DLS.

In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was carried out in order to confirm the bonding of L-cysteine to the nanoparticle surface. Figure 4 shows the FT-IR spectra of free L-cysteine and L-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles. The IR absorption band around 1550–1600 cm−1 (s COO), 1400 cm−1 (m COO), and 3000–3500 cm−1 (m OH, COOH) indicate the –COO group. The peak at 2900–3420 cm−1 (m N–H) is indicated –NH2 group, at 600–800 cm−1 (w C–S) is represented the C–S group and at 2550–2750 cm−1 (w S–H) is belong to the –S–H group. Results showed that the stretching band of the S–H thiol group (2550–2670 cm−1 w S–H) is not observed when the nanoparticles are evaluated. The reason for disappearance of S–H group vibration on the surface of ZnS nanoparticles is due to the formation of covalent bonds between thiols and the surface of ZnS.

803592.fig.004
Figure 4: FT-IR spectra of free L-cysteine and L-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs.
3.2. Spectral Characteristics of Mn-Doped ZnS QDs

Water-soluble L-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs are optically characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorometry. The characteristic absorption peak of L-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs occurs at 290 nm as shown in Figure 5(a). For all the doped samples, two different emission bands dominated the fluorescence spectra (Figure 5(b)). The first emission band at about 460 nm also existed in the PL spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanocrystals; this emission band should indeed originate from the host ZnS but not from Mn2+ ions. Upon Mn2+ doping, a second characteristic emission band centered at around 582 nm is developed for the well-known 4T16A1 d-d transition of Mn2+ ions on Zn2+ sites, where Mn2+ is tetrahedrally coordinated by S2− [36, 37].

803592.fig.005
Figure 5: Absorption (a) and fluorescence (b) spectra of L-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs.  nm.

Sooklal et al. [38] found that Mn2+ incorporated into the ZnS lattice led to the Mn2+-based orange emission while ZnS with surface-bound Mn2+ yielded the ultraviolet emission. Thus, it could be concluded that the Mn2+ ions in our samples were indeed incorporated into the host ZnS nanocrystals.

Photoluminescence quantum yields (QY) were estimated by comparison of the fluorescence intensity with standard dye solutions with the same optical density at the excitation wavelength and similar fluorescence wavelength [39].

The QY values were calculated by the following equation: where , , and are the measured fluorescence value (area under the emission peak), the absorbance at the excitation wavelength, and the refractive index of solvent, respectively. PL spectra were spectrally corrected and quantum yields were determined relative to Rhodamine 6 G in water (QY = 95%) [40]. The PL quantum yield of 13.0% was calculated for Mn-doped ZnS QDs.

3.3. Sensitized Effect of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Copper on Mn-Doped ZnS QDs CL

The effect of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/copper on the Mn-doped ZnS QDs-H2O2 chemiluminescent system was investigated. In previous experiments, it was found that in alkaline media QDs could be directly oxidized by KMnO4 or H2O2 to generate CL radiation [1619]. Aiming to improve the CL properties of QDs and further enhance the QDs induced CL intensity, ionic liquid was introduced into Mn-doped ZnS QDs induced CL system. The presence of ionic liquids (IL) in oxidation reaction catalyzed by transition metals is well known to provide significant advantages in terms of improvement of catalyst stability and activity [41]. Moreover, as most IL currently in use are stable to oxidation, they provide ideal solvents for oxidation processes [42]. In the presence of H2O2 the CL response of Mn-doped ZnS QDs system was investigated firstly. As shown in Figure 6(a), the kinetic curve shows that the oxidation of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by H2O2 generates weak CL in alkaline media. In presence of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/copper, the CL signal intensity could be greatly enhanced (Figure 6(c)). As a control experiment, the same measurements were performed in the absence of Cu2+. It could be seen from Figure 6 that the CL intensity of ionic liquid/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (Figure 6(c)) is far stronger than that of ionic liquid-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (Figure 6(b)), indicating the great sensitized effect of ionic liquid/copper on ZnS QDs-H2O2 CL reaction. Parameters influencing the CL signals of ionic liquid/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system were then investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the CL reaction. This optimization was carried out in the following experiment.

803592.fig.006
Figure 6: CL kinetic curves of ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (a), 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide IL-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (b), and [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (c). Conditions: pH 8.0, ZnS QDs, 20 mg L−1; H2O2, 0.5 M.
3.4. Optimization of the Experimental Conditions

A series of experimental parameters were investigated and optimized for obtaining the maximum sensitivity of the CL system. In order to perform optimization analysis, four factors were evaluated, including pH, stoichiometry of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex, H2O2 concentration, and ZnS QDs concentration. The CL emission intensity of QDs (peak height) was considered as the experimental response.

3.4.1. Effect of Buffer and pH

The reaction media plays an important role in the ionic liquid/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 CL reaction and the effect of reaction media was investigated. In order to explore the influence of different buffers on the CL intensity of the ionic liquid/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system, three buffer solutions, borax, carbonate, and phosphate, were studied at the same pH (pH = 8). It was found that the CL intensity was the strongest when phosphate buffer solution was used. Therefore, phosphate buffer solution was chosen to control acidity in all of experiments. The effect of buffer pH on the CL intensity was examined over the pH range of 6 to 11 using 0.1 mol L−1 PBS solution. Figure 7 presents the CL signals obtained for different pH values in the presence and in the absence of IL. As a matter of fact, the pH seems to have a drastic effect on the CL enhancement. The maximum light intensity value and amplification factor (/) was obtained at pH 8 in the presence of IL. This pH dependency of the CL enhancement is assumed to be related to an interaction taking place between Cu2+ and 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide.

803592.fig.007
Figure 7: Maximum light intensity at pH 6.0–11.0 in the presence and in the absence of 2 M of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]. Conditions: pH 8.0, ZnS QDs, 20 mg L−1, H2O2, 0.5 M.

So an organized [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex can be suggested in the presence of phosphate buffer, which might be reliant to the presence of the labile proton in the C2 position of the imidazolium ring [4345].

3.4.2. Effect of Stoichiometry of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ Complex

Since the CL enhancement was observed to be dependent on the presence of [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex, a study of the stoichiometry of this complex formation has been performed. For that purpose, various concentrations of copper and IL were mixed and used to catalyze the ZnS QDs-H2O2 CL reaction at pH 8.0. As shown in Figure 8 the most favorable stoichiometry of 1000/1 ([(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+) between the two reagents can be calculated. The observed intensity enhancement can be indicative of the catalytic effect of the formed [(1,3-Pr2im) Br]/Cu2+ complex in the presence of phosphate buffer [28]. However, further addition of Cu+2 revealed a gradual decrease of the CL intensity. This is most probably due to formation of insoluble copper(II) hydroxide at higher concentration, which can decrease efficiency of CL emission.

803592.fig.008
Figure 8: Light intensity as a function of different copper and IL concentrations in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 8.0); ZnS QDs, 20 mg L−1, H2O2, and 0.5 M.
3.4.3. Effect of H2O2 Concentration

The effect of H2O2 concentration on the CL intensity was examined in the range of 0.005–1.5 mol L−1 (Figure 9). The results showed that the CL intensity increased along with the increased concentration of H2O2 in the range of 0.005–0.5 mol L−1. However, if the concentration of H2O2 was more than 0.5 mol L−1, the CL system would be quite instable. Since high concentration H2O2 can cause rapid decomposition producing air bubbles in the reaction which will affect the system light emitting and stability [46]. So H2O2 concentration where then selected 0.5 mol L−1 H2O2 as an optimum concentration.

803592.fig.009
Figure 9: Effect of H2O2 concentration on the CL intensity of the ionic liquid/copper-ZnS QDs-H2O2 system in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 8.0); ZnS QDs, 20 mg L−1.
3.4.4. Effect of ZnS QDs Concentration

The response of different concentrations of ZnS QDs to the present CL system was investigated under the optimal reaction conditions. As shown in Figure 10 the analytical signal increased with increasing QD concentrations, but for the highest concentrations the repeatability was impaired. Use of 20 mg L−1 ZnS QD solution led to reproducible signals (r.s.d. ~ 1.5%). The ZnS QDs concentration was then fixed as 20 mg L−1, which assured a compromise between sensitivity, analytical dynamical concentration range, and precision.

803592.fig.0010
Figure 10: Effect of ZnS QDs concentration on the CL system in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 8.0), H2O2, 0.5 M. The CL intensity was obtained from the average of three replicates.
3.5. Possible Reaction Mechanism

The CL-generation mechanism for QDs oxidation in aqueous solution has been extensively studied [17, 19, 21]. Some important oxygen-related radicals, such as superoxide radical anion and the hydroxyl radical , have been reported to be important intermediates leading to luminescence [17, 19, 21]. Under a basic condition, based on Sawyer and Kazarnovskii’s reports [47] an radical can be produced by the reaction of a base with hydrogen peroxide:

On the other hand, transition metal ions with two available oxidation states usually catalyze the radical decomposition of [48, 49]. Based on findings of Neeraj and coworker, there is a complexation reaction between copper(II) ion and imidazole ring in presence of phosphate buffer [45]. Copper(II) organic complex has activity more than Copper(II) ion in the radical decomposition of , as it can be detected by CL reaction [50]. So [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. The resulted superoxide ion (anion radical, ) is produced by the radical decomposition of H2O2 [47, 48, 51]. The formed superoxide ions are quite stable in high pH aqueous solution, and their lifetime is about 1 min [52]. They can easily donate one electron and lead to the injection of an electron from the superoxide ion into the 1Se quantum-confined orbital of ZnS NCs [16]:

The formed radical should be able to inject a hole in the 1Sh quantum-confined orbital of the ZnS NCs at the optimum pH value is used [16]:

Then the excited state of the ZnS NCs occurs containing one electron and one hole which occupies the 1Se (ZnS) and 1Sh (ZnS) quantum-confined orbital, respectively [53]. When the excited state of ZnS NCs returns to its ground state, CL may be produced:

In this study, it is found that [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex can enhance the sensitivity of ZnS QDs-H2O2 system (Figure 6). Enhancement of CL by adding IL solution [(1,3-Pr2im)Br] purposed to have two reason: more efficient reaction of QDs with the by forming surfactant aggregate in presence of IL, similar to micelle effect [54, 55], (2) the catalyst effect of the formed [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/Cu2+ complex in producing superoxide anion radical by the radical decomposition of [47, 48, 51].

4. Conclusion

The use of QDs as CL emitter is a topic of considerable interest in CL research field. In this study, it has been found that 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper can enhance the sensitivity of ZnS QDs-H2O2 system. It is possible that [(1,3-Pr2im)Br]/copper can prolong the radical lifetime and, thus, as a chemiluminescence sensitizer have the potential to interact with the nanodots affecting their photochemical properties and/or reactivity and make possible chemiluminometric determination of compounds. The most QDs CL reactions are classically performed in basic conditions (NaOH 0.1 M). The IL, in addition to the reaction buffer, allows lowering of the reaction pH to 8 that is beneficial toward biological analysis. This may intrigue researchers into gaining a new interest in investigating the chemiluminescence property of semiconductor nanocrystals. This work is important for the study of new and efficient catalysts and luminophore for chemiluminescent reactions and promoting the steps towards its application in various fields.

References

  1. W. R. Algar, K. Susumu, J. B. Delehanty, and I. L. Medintz, “Semiconductor quantum dots in bioanalysis: crossing the valley of death,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 83, no. 23, pp. 8826–8837, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. M. Smith and S. M. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 190–200, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Qu and X. Peng, “Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 2049–2055, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Bae, N. Myung, and A. J. Bard, “Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1153–1161, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Zou and H. Ju, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from a CdSe nanocrystal film and its sensing application in aqueous solution,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 23, pp. 6871–6876, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F. Jensen, H. Mattoussi, J. Michel, B. O. Dabbousi, and M. G. Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of highly luminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dot composites,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 70, no. 16, pp. 2132–2134, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, “Biotechnological applications of bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 295–303, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Na, S. Zhang, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A catalytic nanomaterial-based optical chemo-sensor array,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 45, pp. 14420–14421, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Zhou, H. Chen, N. Ogawa, and J.-M. Lin, “Chemiluminescence from NaClO—H2O2 and enhanced by L-cysteine capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum-dots,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 1991–1997, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Liu, H. Chen, L. Lin, C. Lu, and J. Lin, “Sensitized chemiluminescence reaction between hydrogen peroxide and periodate of different types of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 30, pp. 3479–3484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Wang, J. Li, B. Liu, and J. Li, “CdTe nanocrystals sensitized chemiluminescence and the analytical application,” Talanta, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 1050–1056, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Sun, B. Liu, and J. Li, “Sensitized chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum-dots on Ce(IV)-sulfite and its analytical applications,” Talanta, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 447–454, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Li, and J. M. Lin, “Quantum dots-enhanced chemiluminescence: mechanism and application,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Frigerio, D. S. M. Ribeiro, S. S. M. Rodrigues et al., “Application of quantum dots as analytical tools in automated chemical analysis: a review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 735, pp. 9–22, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. N. Azizi, M. J. Chaichi, P. Shakeri, and A. Bekhradnia, “Determination of epinephrine in pharmaceutical formulation by an optimized novel luminescence method using CdS quantum dots as sensitizer,” Journal of Fluorescence, vol. 23, pp. 227–235, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. K. Poznyak, D. V. Talapin, E. V. Shevchenko, and H. Weller, “Quantum dot chemiluminescence,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 693–698, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. Wang, J. Li, B. Liu, J. Hu, X. Yao, and J. Li, “Chemiluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals induced by direct chemical oxidation and its size-dependent and surfactant-sensitized effect,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 49, pp. 23304–23311, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Liu, Q. Ma, Y. Li, Z. Liu, and X. Su, “Detection of biothiols in human serum by QDs based flow injection “turn off–on” chemiluminescence analysis system,” Talanta, vol. 114, pp. 243–247, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Li, P. Yang, P. Wang, X. Huang, and L. Wang, “CdS nanocrystal induced chemiluminescence: reaction mechanism and applications,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 22, Article ID 225602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Wang, F. Yuan, H.-Q. Chen, B. Ling, and J. Xu, “Chemiluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals catalyzed by sodium hexametaphosphate and its sensitive application for determination of estrogens,” Spectrochimica Acta A, vol. 91, pp. 295–300, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Kang, J. Li, J. Tang, M. Li, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Sensitized chemiluminescence of Tween 20 on CdTe/H2O2 and its analytical applications for determination of phenolic compounds,” Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 259–264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z.-F. Zhang, H. Cui, C.-Z. Lai, and L.-J. Liu, “Gold nanoparticle-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence and its analytical applications,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 3324–3329, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Cui, J.-Z. Guo, N. Li, and L.-J. Liu, “Gold nanoparticle triggered chemiluminescence between luminol and AgNO3,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 30, pp. 11319–11323, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J.-Z. Guo and H. Cui, “Lucigenin chemiluminescence induced by noble metal nanoparticles in the presence of adsorbates,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 33, pp. 12254–12259, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. A. Gorman, P. S. Francis, D. E. Dunstan, and N. W. Barnett, “Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(ii) chemiluminescence enhanced by silver nanoparticles,” Chemical Communications, no. 4, pp. 395–397, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. A.-M. Santafé, B. Doumèche, L. J. Blum, A. P. Girard-Egrot, and C. A. Marquette, “1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate/copper catalyst for the enhancement of glucose chemiluminescent detection: effects on light emission and enzyme activity,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 2401–2404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Cui, M.-J. Shi, R. Meng, J. Zhou, C.-Z. Lai, and X.-Q. Lin, “Effect of pH on inhibition and enhancement of luminol-H2O2-Co2+ chemiluminescence by phenolic compounds and amino acids,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 233–241, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Lau, X. Qin, J. Liang, and J. Lu, “Determination of cysteine in a pharmaceutical formulation by flow injection analysis with a chemiluminescence detector,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 514, no. 1, pp. 45–49, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Cao, B. Xue, H. Li, D. Deng, and Y. Gu, “Facile synthesis of high-quality water-soluble N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped Zn1-xCdxSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots emitting in the violet-green spectral range,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 348, no. 2, pp. 369–376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. He, H.-F. Wang, and X.-P. Yan, “Exploring Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for the room-temperature phosphorescence detection of enoxacin in biological fluids,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 3832–3837, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Taghavi, M. Ghaemy, S. M. Amininasab, and M. Hassanzadeh, “Influence of ionic liquid on selective polycondensation of a new diamine-bisphenol: synthesis and properties of polyamides and their composites with modified nanosilica,” Polymer, vol. 54, pp. 3828–3840, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  32. Y. S. Vygodskii, E. I. Lozinskaya, A. S. Shaplov, K. A. Lyssenko, M. Y. Antipin, and Y. G. Urman, “Implementation of ionic liquids as activating media for polycondensation processes,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 5031–5045, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. P. Klong and L. F. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Crystalline and Amorphous Materials, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1954.
  34. B.-H. Zhang, F.-Y. Wu, Y.-M. Wu, and X.-S. Zhan, “Fluorescent method for the determination of sulfide anion with ZnS:Mn quantum dots,” Journal of Fluorescence, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 243–250, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. M. K. Selim, I.-K. Kang, and H. Guo, “Albumin-conjugated cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and their interaction with KB cells,” Macromolecular Research, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 403–410, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Beaulac, P. I. Archer, X. Liu et al., “Spin-polarizable excitonic luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped CdSe quantum dots,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1197–1201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Beaulac, P. I. Archer, and D. R. Gamelin, “Luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped semiconductor nanocrystals,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 181, no. 7, pp. 1582–1589, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Sooklal, B. S. Cullum, S. M. Angel, and C. J. Murphy, “Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters with spatially localized Mn2+,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 4551–4555, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Koberling, U. Kolb, G. Philipp, I. Potapova, T. Basché, and A. Mews, “Fluorescence anisotropy and crystal structure of individual semiconductor nanocrystals,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 30, pp. 7463–7471, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Grabolle, M. Spieles, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and U. Resch-Genger, “Determination of the fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots: suitable procedures and achievable uncertainties,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 6285–6294, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. M. Gordon, “Continuous catalytic reactions in supercritical fluids,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 222, pp. 101–117, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  42. X. Hu, I. Castro-Rodriguez, and K. Meyer, “Copper complexes of nitrogen-anchored tripodal N-heterocyclic carbene ligands,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 40, pp. 12237–12245, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. C. Y. Lin, R. T. W. Huang, C. S. Lee, A. Bhattacharyya, W. S. Hwang, and I. J. B. Lin, “Coinage metal-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 3561–3598, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. L. Amyes, S. T. Diver, J. P. Richard, F. M. Rivas, and K. Toth, “Formation and stability of N-heterocyclic carbenes in water: the carbon acid pKa of imidazolium cations in aqueous solution,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 13, pp. 4366–4374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Neeraj, T. Loiseau, C. N. R. Rao, and A. K. Cheetham, “Synthesis and structure of [C3N2H5] [Cu(H2PO4)2Cl]·H2O with a chain structure: the first example of an organically templated copper (II) phosphate,” Solid State Sciences, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1169–1173, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Lu, F. Qu, J.-M. Lin, and M. Yamada, “Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of nitrite in water based on the formation of peroxynitrite from the reaction of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 474, no. 1-2, pp. 107–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. L. Roberts Jr., M. M. Morrison, and D. T. Sawyer, “Base-induced generation of superoxide ion and hydroxyl radical from hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 329–330, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. R. Sangi, D. Jayatissa, J. P. Kim, and K. A. Hunter, “Determination of labile Cu2+ in fresh waters by chemiluminescence: interference by iron and other cations,” Talanta, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 924–930, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Hanaoka, J.-M. Lin, and M. Yamada, “Chemiluminescence behavior of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by copper(II)-amino acid complexes and its application to the determination of tryptophan and phenylalanine,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 409, no. 1-2, pp. 65–73, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Khajvand, M. J. Chaichi, O. Nazari, and H. Golchoubian, “Application of Box-Behnken design in the optimization of catalytic behavior of a new mixed chelate of copper (II) complex in chemiluminescence reaction of luminol,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 838–842, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Xiao, D. A. Palmer, D. J. Wesolowski, S. B. Lovitz, and D. W. King, “Carbon dioxide effects on luminol and 1,10-phenanthroline chemiluminescence,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 2210–2216, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Ono, T. Matsumura, N. Kitajima, and S.-I. Fukuzumi, “Formation of superoxide ion during the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on supported metals,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 13, pp. 1307–1311, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. V. Gaponenko, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998.
  54. C. M. Paleos, G. Vassilopoulos, and J. Nikokavouras, “Chemiluminescence of lucigenin micellar systems: bioluminescence and chemiluminescence,” in Basic Chemistry and Analytical Applications, p. 729, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. Dupont, “On the solid, liquid and solution structural organization of imidazolium ionic liquids,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 341–350, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus