Table 1: Code, brand, manufacturer, type, composition, batch number, and manufactures’ instructions of the materials used.

Code (material)ManufacturerTypeComposition (manufacturer supplied)Batch number (shade)Manufacturers’ instructionsa

FL (Fuji II LC capsule)GC Corp., Tokyo, JapanLight-curePowder: aluminosilicate glass
Liquid: water, polyacrylic acid, HEMA, UDMA, and camphorquinone
1009041 (A3)After activation, set the capsule into a mixer, and mix for 10 s. Light-cure for 20 s.

FF (Fuji Filling LC)GC Corp.Light-curePaste A: aluminosilicate glass, HEMA, and UDMA
Paste B: water, polyacrylic acid, UDMA, and silicon dioxide
1006091 (A3)After dispensing, mix thoroughly with lapping strokes for 10 s. Light-cure for 20 s.

VT (Vitremer)3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USATricurePowder: fluoroaluminosilicate glass, microencapsulated potassium persulfate, and ascorbic acid
Liquid: copolymer of acrylic and itaconic acids, water, HEMA, and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate
N136183/N173275 (A3)Place an equal number of level powder scoops and liquid drops. Mix the powder into the liquid. Light-cure for 40 s.

Monomer abbreviations: HEMA: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; UDMA: urethane dimethacrylate.
aIn the present study, all materials were light-irradiated for 40 s.