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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2015, Article ID 502340, 6 pages
Research Article

Detection of Lard in Ink Extracted from Printed Food Packaging Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

1Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Institute of Halal Products Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia

Received 26 July 2015; Revised 31 October 2015; Accepted 5 November 2015

Academic Editor: Eugen Culea

Copyright © 2015 Syazwani Ramli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was utilised to discriminate the presence of lard in extracted ink of printed food packaging. Two spectral regions (full spectra, 3999–649 cm−1, and combination of two regions, 3110–2630 cm−1 and 1940–649 cm−1) of lard, commercial gravure ink, and the blends of both were selected and used to develop a Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model. The score plots obtained from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the maximum number of factors (7 factors) was needed to explain 84% of the total variance. SIMCA was employed as the method to classify the samples into their specific groups. Si versus Hi plots showed that the calibration standards can be classified as lard-containing standards. Sample 2 was deduced to have the highest possibility of containing lard, while only samples 5 and 7 cannot be classified as lard-containing samples. These results demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy, when combined with multivariate analysis, can provide a rapid method with no excessive sample preparation to detect the presence of lard in ink of foodstuff packaging.