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Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2016, Article ID 1603609, 6 pages
Research Article

Raman Spectroscopy in Colorectal Cancer Diagnostics: Comparison of PCA-LDA and PLS-DA Models

1State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3No. 4 Hospital, Jinan 250031, China
4National Center for Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Received 13 August 2016; Revised 25 October 2016; Accepted 8 November 2016

Academic Editor: Feride Severcan

Copyright © 2016 Wenjing Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Raman spectra of human colorectal tissue samples were employed to diagnose colorectal cancer. High-quality Raman spectra were acquired from normal and cancerous colorectal tissues from 81 patients. Subtle Raman variations, such as for peaks at 1134 cm−1 (protein, C-C/C-N stretching) and 1297 cm−1 (lipid, C-H2 twisting), were observed between normal and cancerous colorectal tissues. The average peak intensity at 1134 and 1297 cm−1 was increased from approximately 235 and 72 in the normal group, respectively, to 315 and 273 in the cancer group. The variations of Raman spectra reflected the changes of cell molecules during canceration. The multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), together with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation, were employed to build the discrimination model. PCA-LDA was used to evaluate the capability of this approach for classifying colorectal cancer, resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 79.2%. Further PLS-DA modeling yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 84.3% for colorectal cancer detection. Thus, the PLS-DA model is preferable between the two to discriminate cancerous from normal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used with an optimized multivariate data analysis model as a sensitive diagnostic alternative to identify pathological changes in the colon at the molecular level.