Review Article

Nuclear Transport: A Switch for the Oxidative Stress—Signaling Circuit?

Figure 3

Oxidative stress interferes with importin-α1-dependent import of endogenous cargos. The import of two endogenous proteins, the RNA-binding protein HuR and galectin-3, was monitored in HeLa cells under the conditions described for Figure 2(a). Importin-α1 promotes nuclear import of both proteins. HuR and galectin-3 were visualized by indirect immunofluorescence and nuclei were stained with DAPI [69]. HuR was nuclear in control cells and redistributed to the cytoplasm of stressed cells, where it accumulated in stress granules (SGs). Similarly, galectin-3 was more concentrated in the nuclei of control cells and relocated to the cytoplasm upon DEM treatment. Arrows indicate the position of some of the SGs.