Table of Contents
Journal of Signal Transduction
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 593934, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/593934
Review Article

Signal Transduction in Astrocytes during Chronic or Acute Treatment with Drugs (SSRIs, Antibipolar Drugs, GABA-ergic Drugs, and Benzodiazepines) Ameliorating Mood Disorders

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, China Medical University, No. 92 Beier Road, Heping District, Shenyang, China

Received 30 October 2013; Accepted 16 December 2013; Published 24 February 2014

Academic Editor: Joseph I. Shapiro

Copyright © 2014 Leif Hertz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic treatment with fluoxetine or other so-called serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) or with a lithium salt “lithium”, carbamazepine, or valproic acid, the three classical antibipolar drugs, exerts a multitude of effects on astrocytes, which in turn modulate astrocyte-neuronal interactions and brain function. In the case of the SSRIs, they are to a large extent due to -mediated upregulation and editing of genes. These alterations induce alteration in effects of cPLA2, GluK2, and the receptor, probably including increases in both glucose metabolism and glycogen turnover, which in combination have therapeutic effect on major depression. The ability of increased levels of extracellular K+ to increase is increased as a sign of increased K+-induced excitability in astrocytes. Acute anxiolytic drug treatment with benzodiazepines or receptor stimulation has similar glycogenolysis-enhancing effects. The antibipolar drugs induce intracellular alkalinization in astrocytes with lithium acting on one acid extruder and carbamazepine and valproic acid on a different acid extruder. They inhibit K+-induced and transmitter-induced increase of astrocytic and thereby probably excitability. In several cases, they exert different changes in gene expression than SSRIs, determined both in cultured astrocytes and in freshly isolated astrocytes from drug-treated animals.