Evaluation of the Effects of Agro Pesticides Use on Liver and Kidney Function in Farmers from Buea, CameroonRead the full article
Journal of Toxicology publishes papers in all areas of toxicological sciences, including the structure, function, and mechanism of agents toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, safety evaluation, and environmental health.
Chief Editor, Professor Ng, has a background in the chemical speciation of arsenic species in environmental and biological media and the toxicity of mixed metals and organic pollutants.
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In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity Studies on Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves Essential Oil from Benin
Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. (Poaceae) is a medicinal plant used to treat various diseases in traditional medicine in several African countries. The present study aims to evaluate the oral and inhalation toxicity as well as the mutagenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon giganteus leaves (EOCG) from a sample collected in Benin. Mutagenic potential was assessed by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Oral acute toxicity was carried out by administration of a single dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. to Wistar rats while oral subacute toxicity was assessed by daily administration of 50 and 500 mg/kg of EOCG for 28 days. Finally, inhalation toxicity was assessed by administration of a single dose of 0.125%, 0.5%, 2% or 5% v/v of EOCG emulsions in 0.05% v/v lecithin solution in sterile water for the first experiment, and in a second one by administration of single dose of 0.125% or 0.5% v/v. A broncho-alveolar lavage was performed after 3 h or 24 h, respectively. The results show that EOCG is not mutagenic on Salmonella typhimurium strains at the highest concentration tested (200 μg/plate). In the acute oral toxicity study, EOCG induce neither mortality nor toxicity, showing that the LD50 is greater than 2000 mg/kg. The subacute oral toxicity study at both doses did not show any significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight, hematological and/or biochemical parameters or histopathology as compared to the control group. EOCG induced mortality and inflammation in lungs 3 h after administration of a single dose of 5% or 2% v/v. Single doses of 0.125% or 0.5% v/v did not induce inflammation, cell recruitment nor cytotoxicity in lungs 3 h or 24 h after administration, suggesting safety at these concentrations. This first report on the in vivo toxicity will be useful to guide safe uses of EOCG.
Management of Iron Overload in Resource Poor Nations: A Systematic Review of Phlebotomy and Natural Chelators
Iron is an essential element and the most abundant trace metal in the body involved in oxygen transport and oxygen sensing, electron transfer, energy metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Excess labile and unchelated iron can catalyze the formation of tissue-damaging radicals and induce oxidative stress. English abstracts were identified in PubMed and Google Scholar using multiple and various search terms based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full-length articles were selected for systematic review, and secondary and tertiary references were developed. Although bloodletting or phlebotomy remains the gold standard in the management of iron overload, this systematic review is an updated account of the pitfalls of phlebotomy and classical synthetic chelators with scientific justification for the use of natural iron chelators of dietary origin in resource-poor nations.
Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Studies on Fruit-Skin Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata
Uncontrolled cell proliferation hallmarks cancer and most cancer cells have developed multiple resistance to the drugs employed for their treatment. The study examined the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the fruit-skin ethanol extract of Annona muricata Linn. (ESA) and its effect on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Qualitative phytochemical study and antioxidant assays were carried out following established protocols while the opening of the MMPT pore in the presence of varying concentrations of the extract was assayed spectrophotometrically under succinate-energized conditions. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and spermine were used to trigger and inhibit pore opening respectively. Cytochrome c release was assayed for using ELISA kit. Terpenoids, steroids, phenols among other phytochemicals were found present in ESA and the extract showed very low antioxidant properties at the tested concentrations based on the diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay. Lipid peroxidation was induced in a concentration-dependent manner on both the cytosolic and mitochondrial hepatocyte fractions in vitro. In the absence of CaCl2 0.84 mg/mL concentration of ESA induced MMPT pore opening by 129% while the extracts showed no inhibitory activity in its presence. The induction fold corresponded with the concentrations of cytochrome c released. The fruit-skin ethanol extract of Annona muricata at certain concentrations may possibly contain bioactive compounds that induce apoptosis.
Potential Toxicity of the Essential Oil from Minthostachys mollis: A Medicinal Plant Commonly Used in the Traditional Andean Medicine in Peru
Medicinal plants are used throughout the world and the World Health Organization supports its use by recommending quality, safety and efficacy. Minthostachys mollis is distributed in the Andes of South America and is used by the population for various diseases. While studies have shown their pharmacological properties, the information about their safety is very limited. Then, the goal of this research was to determine the acute oral toxicity and in repeated doses during 28 days of Minthostachys mollis essential oil (Mm-EO) in rats. For the acute toxicity test two groups of rats, of three animals each, were used. Each group received Mm-EO in a single dose of 2000 or 300 mg/kg of body weight. For the repeated dose toxicity test, four groups of 10 rats each were used. Doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day were used, one group was control. With the single dose of Mm-EO of 2000 mg/kg of body weight, the three rats in the group showed immediate signs of toxicity and died between 36 and 72 hours. In the lung, inflammatory infiltrate was observed, predominantly lymphocytic with severe hemorrhage and presence of macrophages with hemosiderin. In the repeated dose study, male rats (5/5) and female rats (2/5) died at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day. The body weight of both male and female rats decreased significantly with doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day. The serum levels of AST and ALT increased significantly and the histopathological study revealed chronic and acute inflammatory infiltrate in the lung; while in the liver was observed in 80% of the cases (24/30) mild chronic inflammatory infiltrate and in some of those cases there was vascular congestion and in one case cytoplasmic vacuolization. The Mm-EO presented moderate acute oral toxicity, while with repeated doses for 28 days; there was evidence of toxicity, in a dose-dependent manner, mainly at the hepatic level.
Exposure of Fluoride with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Aggravates Testicular Damage and Spermatozoa Parameters in Mice
Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease worldwide that causes numerous complications, including male infertility. The prevalence of DM is 451 million people and estimated that would increase to 693 million in 2045. Fluorosis caused by drinking water contaminated with inorganic fluoride is a public health problem in many areas around the world. Previous studies have shown that fluoride exposure damages the male reproductive function. This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride sub-chronic exposure on the spermatozoa function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. After confirming diabetes by measuring blood glucose levels, the male mice received 45.2 ppm of fluoride added or deionized water. We evaluated several parameters in diabetic mice exposed to fluoride: standard quality analysis, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ψm), the caspase activity in spermatozoa, urinary fluoride excretion, and histological evaluation in the testes. After 60 days of fluoride-exposure, diabetic mice, significantly decreased sperm quality (motility, viability, and concentration). Spermatozoa from fluoride-exposure in diabetic mice presented a significant decrease in ψm and a significant increase in activity caspase 3/7. Urinary fluoride excretion was decreased in diabetic mice exposed to fluoride. Subchronic fluoride exposure of mice with STZ-induced diabetes aggravated testicular damage and the spermatozoa function.
Lyophilized B. subtilis ZB183 Spores: 90-Day Repeat Dose Oral (Gavage) Toxicity Study in Wistar Rats
A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on lyophilized spores of the novel genetically modified strain B. subtilis ZB183. Lyophilized spores at doses of 109, 1010, and 1011 CFU/kg body weight/day were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats for a period of 90 consecutive days. B. subtilis ZB183 had no effects on clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmological examinations, functional observational battery, body weights, body weight gains and food consumption in both sexes. There were no test item-related changes observed in haematology, coagulation, urinalysis, thyroid hormonal analysis, terminal fasting body weights, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology. A minimal increase in the plasma albumin level was observed at 1010 and 1011 CFU/kg/day doses without an increase in total protein in males or females and was considered a nonadverse effect. The “No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)” is defined at the highest dose of 1011 CFU/kg body weight/day for lyophilized B. subtilis ZB183 Spores under the test conditions employed.