Role of Shear Stress on Renal Proximal Tubular Cells for Nephrotoxicity AssaysRead the full article
Journal of Toxicology publishes papers in all areas of toxicological sciences, including the structure, function, and mechanism of agents toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, safety evaluation, and environmental health.
Chief Editor, Professor Ng, has a background in the chemical speciation of arsenic species in environmental and biological media and the toxicity of mixed metals and organic pollutants.
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A 90-Day Oral Toxicity of Hydroethanolic Root Extract of Carissa spinarum in Wistar Rats
Background. Herbal medication is a worldwide and ancient practice, mostly in developing countries, where a large part of the population is involved in this practice. Hence, studies must be conducted to evaluate their safety and efficiency to avoid or prevent toxicological risks due to their usage. In Togo, Carissa spinarum is a medicinal plant belonging to Apocynaceae family, used as an aphrodisiac or to heal some ailments including malaria, sickle cell anemia, hypertension, pain, and asthma. Notwithstanding its several ethnomedicinal benefits, just a few toxicological data associated with its chronic use are available. Objective. Therefore, this study aims to assess the toxicity of an ethanolic root extract of Carissa spinarum in Wistar rats. Methods. The 90-day oral toxicity process following OECD TG 408 guidelines is used. Male Wistar rats received Carissa spinarum root hydroethanolic extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 90 days by oral gavage. Body weight changes, hematological and blood biochemical parameters, organ weight changes, malondialdehyde as a lipoperoxidation marker expressed according to tissue proteins, and histopathology of vital organs were assessed. Results. No signs of toxicity or mortality were observed during the 90 days experiment. Hematological parameters have not shown any treatment-related abnormalities. According to biochemical parameters, an increase in the chloride ion level was observed at 1000 mg/kg . There was no significant difference between the treated groups and the control group concerning the malondialdehyde concentration, body weight, and organ relative weight. No changes in necropsy and histopathology of vital organs associated with extract treatment were observed. Conclusion. The results indicated that an ethanolic root extract of Carissa spinarum does not cause adverse effects, which can lead to Wistar rats’ death after 90-day oral administration at 500 and 1000 mg.
Toxicological Profile of the Aqueous Extract of Tectona grandis L.F. (Verbenaceae) Leaves: A Medicinal Plant Used in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Traditional Cameroonian Medicine
Tectona grandis (T. grandis) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon to treat typhoid fever and several other diseases. Despite its heavy use for medical purposes, no study has yet been conducted to assess its potentially toxic effects. This study aimed at evaluating the acute and subchronic toxicological profile of Tectona grandis leaf extract in rats. The acute toxicity study revealed neither behavioral disturbances nor death in rats. The lethal dose (DL50) of this extract is greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subchronic toxicity study showed no significant change in weight gain in rats at test doses throughout the treatment period. However, there was a significant decrease in alanine transaminase activity and serum protein levels at all doses. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased at doses of 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg and increased at the dose of 810 mg/kg body weight. Serum and urinary urea levels increased simultaneously at doses of 270 and 810 mg/kg body weight. Repeated administration of the extract also increased total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein levels in both sexes were compared to respective controls, and the ratio of high- to low-density lipoprotein was found to be greater than 1 in all animals. However, at the dose of 810 mg/kg, necrosis was observed on the kidney sections and vascular congestion on the liver sections of animals. Aqueous extract of T. grandis did not lead to any adverse effects in rats after acute and subchronic treatment at 30 and 90 mg/kg doses. This extract can, therefore, be used for the formulation of typhoid fever phytomedicine at the therapeutic dose of 30 mg/kg, but before this, chronic and mutagenic toxicity evaluations must be carried out.
Global Trends of Green Pesticide Research from 1994 to 2019: A Bibliometric Analysis
The fast-growing world population places food production under enormous pressure to ensure food security. One of the most common methods to increase food production is the use of pesticides, but the continuous use thereof has numerous detrimental effects on the environment. The interest in biopesticides for a possible substitute has grown over the past two decades. To determine the research evolution of biopesticides (green pesticides), a bibliometric analysis from 1994 to 2019 was carried out. A total of 580 documents were found eligible in the Scopus database for this analysis. Parameters such as the number of articles, article citations, keywords, source impact, and countries of publication were used to analyse the documents and rank countries based on authors, productivity, article citations, and co-authorship. The analysis reveals production increased significantly from 2009 and has the most published documents in 2019 with a total of 74 articles. Asia’s most populous countries, India and China, were ranked first and second, respectively, and the USA third in terms of the most productive countries in the field of plant biopesticides. Countries in Europe and Africa however have fewer publications than expected in this field, given the fact that they are high consumers of pesticides. India, China, and the USA have 4.08%, 2.94%, and 12.5% multiple country publications (MCPs), respectively, with the USA having a stronger collaboration. Finally, there is a clear indication in this study that India and China are taking the lead in substituting synthetic pesticides with the alternative natural plant biopesticide.
Effects of Physicochemical Variables of Superficial Waters on the Abundance of the North African Freshwater Crab Potamon algeriense (Bott, 1967)
The large number of pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment may influence the physicochemical and biological qualities of the aquatic ecosystem. This study discloses the global quality of the surface waters and the effect of physicochemical variables on the abundance of the African freshwater crab Potamon algeriense inhabiting Zegzel watercourse, a mountain stream in the northeast of Morocco. Physicochemical variables including streamflow, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended matter, chloride, calcium, magnesium, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and organic matter were evaluated monthly for one year (October 2017–September 2018). The evaluation of the physicochemical quality showed that the waters of all the stations studied are between the excellent and good quality classes concerning all the physicochemical variables and highlights also two variations with a tendency towards degradation, one spatial from upstream to downstream and the other seasonal from the wet to the dry period. The abundance of crabs was recorded to exhibit a positive correlation with dissolved oxygen, calcium (N = 44) ( < 0.01), and magnesium. However, a negative correlation has been noticed for streamflow (N = 1) ( < 0.01), water temperature, pH, suspended matter, chloride, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and organic matter. The results obtained reveal that besides the biotic variables, the distribution of P. algeriense also depends on these specific environmental variables.
Comparison of In Vitro Endocrine Activity of Phthalates and Alternative Plasticizers
Because of the deleterious effects of phthalates, regulations have been taken to decrease their use, and the needs for alternatives are increasing. Due to the concerns about the endocrine-disrupting properties of phthalates, it was deemed necessary to particularly investigate these effects for potential substitutes. In this study, we compared the in vitro endocrine activity of several already used potential alternative plasticizers (DEHT, DINCH, and TOTM) or new substitutes (POLYSORB® isosorbide and POLYSORB® ID 46) to one of 2 phthalates, DEHP and DINP. Effects of these chemicals on 3 common mechanisms of endocrine disruption, i.e., interaction with estrogen receptors (ER), androgen receptors (AR), or steroidogenesis, were studied using extensively used in vitro methods. In the E-Screen assay, only DEHP moderately induced MCF-7 cell proliferation; none of the other tested substances were estrogenic or antiestrogenic. No androgenic or antiandrogenic activity in MDA-kb2 cells was shown for any of the tested phthalates or alternatives. On the other hand, both DEHP and DINP, as well as DEHT, DINCH, and TOTM, disrupted steroidogenesis in the H295R assay, mainly by inducing an increase in estradiol synthesis; no such effect was observed for POLYSORB® isosorbide and POLYSORB® ID 46.
Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Stachys pilifera on Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Male Rats
Background. Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has a pivotal role in the progression of acute renal failure. Reactive oxygen species are considered the major constituents involved in the biochemical and pathophysiological changes that were shown during kidney I/R. The purpose of this study was to examine the renoprotective effects of Stachys pilifera ethanolic extract on oxidant-antioxidant status in renal I/R-injuries in male rats. Material and methods. Twenty-one male Wistar rats were arbitrarily distributed into 3 groups: sham control (SC), I/R, and I/R + Stachys pilifera ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg). The artery and vein of the right kidney were completely blocked, and the right kidney was completely removed in all groups. Then, the left kidney artery was blocked with suture thread for 30 minutes in only I/R and I/R + SP extract groups. Kidney function indices, oxidative stress markers, and hematoxylin and eosin staining were investigated in the plasma and kidney tissues. Results. It was shown that the urine Na and K, fractional excretion of Na and K, and protein carbonyl content markedly increased in the merely I/R group as compared to SC rats, while the administration of SP extract markedly reduced these indices (). Also, glomerular filtration rate and total thiol meaningfully reduced in the I/R rats in contrast to the SC group, while the treatment with SP extract markedly augmented these indices (). However, in agreement with renal function tests, SP extract had no significant effects on histopathological examinations. Conclusion. It seems that SP extract employs renoprotective effects on renal damage induced by I/R, possibly by improving of oxidant-antioxidant status in favor of the antioxidant system.