Journal of Toxicology
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Acceptance rate26%
Submission to final decision88 days
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CiteScore7.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.740
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Journal of Toxicology has recently been accepted into Food Science & Technology Abstracts

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Journal of Toxicology publishes papers in all areas of toxicological sciences, including the structure, function, and mechanism of agents toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, safety evaluation, and environmental health.

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Chief Editor, Professor You-Cheng Hseu, is based at China Medical University. His research focuses on the biology of free radicals, bioactivity in traditional Chinese medicines, and antioxidants and cosmeceutics.

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Research Article

Serum Scavenging Capacity and Folliculogenesis Impact following Flaxseed Consumption in the First-Generation Mice Pups

Flaxseed is a source of antioxidants utilized for female infertility treatment in traditional medicine. This study investigated the effects of flax hydroalcoholic extract and flaxseeds during prenatal and postnatal (PND) periods on folliculogenesis and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Pregnant NMRI mice received 500 and 1000 mg/kg of flax extract (LE) and the same doses of flaxseed (LS). Female pups received the same regimen for 56 days. The body, ovarian morphometry, follicle development, and TAC levels were evaluated. The ovarian weight significantly increased in the LE1000 group compared to the LS500 group. The LE500 group had a considerably lower number of primary and antral follicles compared to the CTL and LS1000 groups. The number of antral follicles significantly increased in the LE1000 group compared to the LS500 and LE500 groups. The number of preovulatory follicles was higher in the LE1000 group. A significant increase in the TAC levels was detected in the LS500, LS1000, and LE1000 groups. LE showed a dose-dependent protective effect on the folliculogenesis in F1, which is more evident with the dosage of 1000 mg/kg. This could be related to the strongest antioxidant property of LE1000, as shown by the highest levels of TAC.

Research Article

Toxicological Assessments of a Proprietary Blend of Punica granatum Fruit Rind and Theobroma cacao Seed Extracts: Acute, Subchronic, and Genetic Toxicity Studies

LN18178 (Tesnor®) is a standardized, proprietary composition of aqueous ethanol extracts of Punica granatum fruit rind and Theobroma cacao seeds. The present study demonstrates a broad-spectrum toxicological evaluation of LN18178 utilizing in vitro and in vivo preclinical models following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines for testing chemicals. Wistar rats did not show any clinical signs of toxicity and morbidity in acute oral and dermal toxicity tests with the median lethal dose (LD50) values of at least 5000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. LN18178 was nonirritating to the skin and eyes of the treated rabbits. In a ninety-day subchronic repeated oral dose toxicity study, the LN18178-treated Wistar rats did not show dose-related signs of toxicity on their body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters. The estimated no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of LN18178 in male and female rats was 2500 mg/kg body weight. The observations from the bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay, micronucleus assay in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes, and in vitro mouse lymphoma TK+/− gene mutation assay suggest that LN18178 is neither mutagenic nor clastogenic. In summary, the present study demonstrates that oral consumption of the herbal blend LN18178 does not show signs of toxicity; also it does not elicit genetic toxicity in the standard preclinical models.

Review Article

Iron Chelators in Treatment of Iron Overload

Patients suffering from iron overload can experience serious complications. In such patients, various organs, such as endocrine glands and liver, can be damaged. Although iron is a crucial element for life, iron overload can be potentially toxic for human cells due to its role in generating free radicals. In the past few decades, there has been a major improvement in the survival of patients who suffer from iron overload due to the application of iron chelation therapy in clinical practice. In clinical use, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox are the three United States Food and Drug Administration-approved iron chelators. Each of these iron chelators is well known for the treatment of iron overload in various clinical conditions. Based on several up-to-date studies, this study explained iron overload and its clinical symptoms, introduced each of the above-mentioned iron chelators, and evaluated their advantages and disadvantages with an emphasis on combination therapy, which in recent studies seems a promising approach. In numerous clinical conditions, due to the lack of accurate indicators, choosing a standard approach for iron chelation therapy can be difficult; therefore, further studies on the issue are still required. This study aimed to introduce each of these iron chelators, combination therapy, usage doses, specific clinical applications, and their advantages, toxicity, and side effects.

Review Article

Review of Cyanotoxicity Studies Based on Cell Cultures

Cyanotoxins (CTs) are a large and diverse group of toxins produced by the peculiar photosynthetic prokaryotes of the domain Cyanoprokaryota. Toxin-producing aquatic cyanoprokaryotes can develop in mass, causing “water blooms” or “cyanoblooms,” which may lead to environmental disaster—water poisoning, extinction of aquatic life, and even to human death. CT studies on single cells and cells in culture are an important stage of toxicological studies with increasing impact for their further use for scientific and clinical purposes, and for policies of environmental protection. The higher cost of animal use and continuous resistance to the use of animals for scientific and toxicological studies lead to a progressive increase of cell lines use. This review aims to present (1) the important results of the effects of CT on human and animal cell lines, (2) the methods and concentrations used to obtain these results, (3) the studied cell lines and their tissues of origin, and (4) the intracellular targets of CT. CTs reviewed are presented in alphabetical order as follows: aeruginosins, anatoxins, BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine), cylindrospermopsins, depsipeptides, lipopolysaccharides, lyngbyatoxins, microcystins, nodularins, cyanobacterial retinoids, and saxitoxins. The presence of all these data in a review allows in one look to advance the research on CT using cell cultures by facilitating the selection of the most appropriate methods, conditions, and cell lines for future toxicological, pharmacological, and physiological studies.

Research Article

Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus africanus Lam. Root Extract against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

The kidney is the organ most vulnerable to nephrotoxic drugs such as gentamicin. Nephrotoxicity is a rapid deterioration of kidney function due to various factors. Gentamicin causes nephrotoxicity, which was manifested by an increase in serum kidney biomarkers. Asparagus africanus is one of the ethnomedicinal plants used as traditional medicine for treating various ailments, including kidney disease in Ethiopian society. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of A. africanus root extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Using maceration techniques, 100 g of dried plant powder was extracted in 1 L of ethanol. The physicochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, and steroids. The nephroprotective activity of A. africanus crude extract was evaluated on male Swiss albino mice. The crude ethanolic extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses showed strong nephroprotective effects by restoring biomarkers such as creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen, which were damaged by gentamicin () in a dose-dependent manner. The mice treated with higher doses (400 mg/kg) had a comparable nephroprotective effect compared to the positive control group (200 mg/kg silymarin; ). The histopathology of the control group showed normal glomeruli, normal parenchyma, distal convoluted, and no tubular damage. The toxicant-induced group showed damage to glomeruli and inflammatory infiltration. Therefore, A. africanus root extract has a nephroprotective activity by retarding the gentamicin toxicity in male Swiss albino mice.

Research Article

The Developmental Toxicity of Thymus schimperi Essential Oil in Rat Embryos and Fetuses

Background. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial parts of Thymus schimperi are widely used to treat diseases such as gonorrhea, cough, liver disease, kidney disease, hypertension, stomach pain, and fungal skin infections. In addition, they have been used as vegetables to flavor a broad variety of food products. However, there is an insufficient investigation of the toxic effect of Thymus schimperi essential oil. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the developmental toxicity of the essential oil of Thymus schimperi leaves on developing rat embryos and fetuses. Methods. Essential oil of the aerial parts of Thymus schimperi was extracted by hydrodistillation. Pregnant Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups. The doses 65 mg/kg, 130 mg/kg, and 260 mg/kg of the essential of Thymus schimperi were administered by force feeding to the III–V groups, respectively. Groups I and II were negative and ad libitum control groups. The embryos and fetuses were revealed on days 12 and 20 of gestations, respectively. The embryos were examined for developmental delays or growth retardation. Gross external, skeletal, and visceral anomalies in the fetuses were examined. Results. In this study, the developmental scores of the number of implantation sites, crown-rump length, the number of somites, and morphological scores were significantly lower while the score of fetal resorptions was increased in a 12-day-old rat embryos treated with 260 mg/kg of the Thymus schimperi essential oil. There was also a significant delay in the development of the otic system, olfactory system, and a reduction in the number of branchial bars in 12-day-old embryos treated with 130 mg/kg and 260 mg/kg of the essential oil. However, external morphological examinations of rat fetuses revealed no detectable structural abnormalities. The fetal skull, vertebrae, hyoid, forelimb, and hindlimb ossification centers did not differ significantly across all the groups. Furthermore, there were no skeletal or soft-tissue malformations as a result of the essential oil treatment. Although the difference was not statistically significant, fetuses of the high-dose treatment group had a reduced number of ossification centers in the caudal vertebrae and hind limp phalanges. Conclusion. The essential oil of Thymus schimperi at high doses has a detrimental effect on the development of rat embryos and fetuses. Its developmental toxicity is evidenced by significant delays in fetal and embryonic development, a decrease in the number of implantation sites, and an increase in fetal resorption. Furthermore, administration of the essential oil in higher doses resulted in a significant decrease in placenta weight and litter weight. In addition, the present study provided evidence that using the Thymus schimperi essential oil in a high dose could affect the developing embryo and fetus. Thus, it is recommended to discourage the use of Thymus schimperi essential oil in high doses.

Journal of Toxicology
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate26%
Submission to final decision88 days
Acceptance to publication15 days
CiteScore7.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.740
Impact Factor-
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