Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2009, Article ID 596149, 5 pages
Review Article

Cannabis and Breastfeeding

1Départment d’Ingénierie Biologique, École Polytechnique de l’Université de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot, France
2Lactarium d’Ile de France, Institut de Puériculture et de Périnatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris, France
3Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d’Assas, 75006 Paris, France
4Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d’Assas 75006 Paris, France

Received 5 November 2008; Accepted 18 February 2009

Academic Editor: Syed F. Ali

Copyright © 2009 Aurélia Garry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. R. Howard and R. A. Lawrence, “Breast-feeding and drug exposure,” Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 195–217, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. W. Chapkis and R. J. Webb, “Mother’s milk and the muffin man: grassroots innovations in medical marijuana delivery systems,” Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, vol. 4, no. 3-4, pp. 183–204, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Melchior, J.-F. Chastang, P. Goldberg, and E. Fombonne, “High prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use in adolescents and young adults in France: results from the GAZEL Youth study,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. “Consommation de cannabis partout en France,” La Revue Prescrire, vol. 28, no. 299, pp. 702–703, 2008.
  5. L. D. Gilchrist, J. M. Hussey, M. R. Gillmore, M. J. Lohr, and D. M. Morrison, “Drug use among adolescent mothers: prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 337–344, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. C. M. O’Connell and P. A. Fried, “Prenatal exposure to cannabis: a preliminary report of postnatal consequences in school-age children,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 631–639, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. T. W. Hale, Medications and Mother’s Milk, Hale, Amarillo, Tex, USA, 2006.
  8. E. Fride, “Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 20, supplement 1, pp. 75–81, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. E. Fride, A. Foox, E. Rosenberg et al., “Milk intake and survival in newborn cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice: evidence for a “CB3” receptor,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 461, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. E. Fride, T. Bregman, and T. C. Kirkham, “Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 230, no. 4, pp. 225–234, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Fernández-Ruiz, M. Gómez, M. Hernández, R. de Miguel, and J. A. Ramos, “Cannabinoids and gene expression during brain development,” Neurotoxicity Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 389–401, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  12. F. Chaperon and M.-H. Thiébot, “Behavioral effects of cannabinoid agents in animals,” Critical Reviews in Neurobiology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 243–281, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  13. H. R. Frischknecht, B. Sieber, and P. G. Waser, “Behavioral effects of hashish in mice—II: nursing behavior and development of the sucklings,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. G. B. Bovasso, “Cannabis abuse as a risk factor for depressive symptoms,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, no. 12, pp. 2033–2037, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. G. C. Patton, C. Coffey, J. B. Carlin, L. Degenhardt, M. Lynskey, and W. Hall, “Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1195–1198, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Zammit, P. Allebeck, S. Andreasson, I. Lundberg, and G. Lewis, “Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1199–1201, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Andréasson, A. Engström, P. Allebeck, and U. Rydberg, “Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8574, pp. 1483–1486, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. G. R. Ahmad and N. Ahmad, “Passive consumption of marijuana through milk: a low level chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC),” Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 255–260, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Perez-Reyes and M. E. Wall, “Presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human milk,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 307, no. 13, pp. 819–820, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  20. P. N. Bennett, “Cannabis,” in Drugs and Human Lactation, P. N. Bennett and WHO Working Group, Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2nd edition, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Liston, “Breastfeeding and the use of recreational drugs—alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana,” Breastfeeding Review, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 27–30, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  22. K. Tennes, N. Avitable, C. Blackard et al., “Marijuana: prenatal and postnatal exposure in the human,” NIDA Research Monograph Series, vol. 59, pp. 48–60, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. J. Astley and R. E. Little, “Maternal marijuana use during lactation and infant development at one year,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 161–168, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Schulte-Hobein, D. Schwartz-Bickenbach, S. Abt, C. Plum, and H. Nau, “Cigarette smoke exposure and development of infants throughout the first year of life: influence of passive smoking and nursing on cotinine levels in breast milk and infant’s urine,” Acta Pædiatrica, vol. 81, no. 6-7, pp. 550–557, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. C. Schoendorf and J. L. Kiely, “Relationship of sudden infant death syndrome to maternal smoking during and after pregnancy,” Pediatrics, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 905–908, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Klonoff-Cohen and P. Lam-Kruglick, “Maternal and paternal recreational drug use and sudden infant death syndrome,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 765–770, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. M. Ward, B. A. Bates, W. E. Benitz et al., “The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk,” Pediatrics, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 776–789, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  28. Medic-Al network, a French network in pharmacovigilance about drugs during breastfeeding,