Journal of Toxicology / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

Table 2

The effects of air pollutants on the central nervous system in vivo.

PollutantsSpeciesRoute of administrationAssaysKey findings and outcomeReferences

Mouse (ApoE−/−)InhalationTH immunostainingDA neurotoxicity
CAPsMouse (ApoE−/−)InhalationEMSA
Western blotting
NFκB and AP-1 activation
JNK activation
NFκB activation [68]

Increased TNFα and IL-1 α levels
DEPsRatInhalationIHC, RT-PCR
Western blotting
Increased HO-1 and COX2 mRNA and protein expression[69]
MouseInhalation (w/wo i.p. LTA injection)Microdialysis/HPLC
Increased glutamate levels Inreased NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B), and CaMKIV mRNA[70]

Inhalation (nasal)EMSA
NFκB and AP-1 activation Increased TNFα and IL-1 α levels and mRNA expression[71]
RatMiceInhalationOpen-field testDecreased locomotor activity[72]
RatInhalation/IntratrachealIBA-1 immunostainingMicroglial activation
ELISAIncreased TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and MIP-1α levels [49]
qRT-PCRIncreased TNFα, MIP-1α mRNA expression

ROFARatIn instillationTBARsIncreased lipid peroxidation [73]

Open-field testDecreased exploratory behavior
NSCBMousein instillation (w/wo ip LTA injection)RT-PCR
Increased TNFα, IL-1β, and chemokine mRNA expression
Increased glutamate glycine levels

RatInhalation (temporal)Motor activity test
Lipid peroxidation assay
TH immunostaining
Decreased motor activity
Increased lipid peroxidation
Loss of DA neurons (SN)
Rat (ovariectomized)InhalationTH immunostainingLoss of DA neurons (SN)[76]
RatInhalationBehavioral testsIncreased freezing behavior Decreased exploratory behavior [77]
Lipid peroxidation assayIncreased lipid peroxidation
Electron microscopy
Changes in neurotransmitter levels
OzoneRat(ovariectomized)InhalationBehavioral tests
Lipid peroxidation assay
Impaired olfactory perception and social recognition memory
Increased lipid peroxidation
RatInhalationBehavioral tests
Lipid peroxidation assay
Impaired memory
Increased lipid peroxidation
RatInhalationIHCIncreased VEGF, IL-6 and TNFα[79]
RatInhalationIHCIncreased c-Fos expression in different brain regions including NTS[43]

Abbreviations: apolipoprotein E (ApoE), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV(CaMKIV), concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), dopaminergic (DA), diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), heme oxygenase (HO), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), allograft inflammatory factor 1(IBA1), immunohistochemistry (IHC), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs), nanosized carbon black (NSCB), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), residual oil fly ash (ROFA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), substantia nigra (SN), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

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