Journal of Toxicology / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

Table 2

The effects of air pollutants on the central nervous system in vivo.

PollutantsSpeciesRoute of administrationAssaysKey findings and outcomeReferences

PMs
Mouse (ApoE−/−)InhalationTH immunostainingDA neurotoxicity
Astrogliosis
[66]
CAPsMouse (ApoE−/−)InhalationEMSA
Western blotting
NFκB and AP-1 activation
JNK activation
[67]
MouseInhalationEMSA
ELISA
NFκB activation [68]

Increased TNFα and IL-1 α levels
DEPsRatInhalationIHC, RT-PCR
Western blotting
Increased HO-1 and COX2 mRNA and protein expression[69]
MouseInhalation (w/wo i.p. LTA injection)Microdialysis/HPLC
RT-PCR
Increased glutamate levels Inreased NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B), and CaMKIV mRNA[70]

Inhalation (nasal)EMSA
ELISA, RT-PCR
NFκB and AP-1 activation Increased TNFα and IL-1 α levels and mRNA expression[71]
RatMiceInhalationOpen-field testDecreased locomotor activity[72]
RatInhalation/IntratrachealIBA-1 immunostainingMicroglial activation
ELISAIncreased TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and MIP-1α levels [49]
qRT-PCRIncreased TNFα, MIP-1α mRNA expression

ROFARatIn instillationTBARsIncreased lipid peroxidation [73]

Open-field testDecreased exploratory behavior
NSCBMousein instillation (w/wo ip LTA injection)RT-PCR
Microdialysis/HPLC
Increased TNFα, IL-1β, and chemokine mRNA expression
Increased glutamate glycine levels
[74]

RatInhalation (temporal)Motor activity test
Lipid peroxidation assay
TH immunostaining
Decreased motor activity
Increased lipid peroxidation
Loss of DA neurons (SN)
[75]
Rat (ovariectomized)InhalationTH immunostainingLoss of DA neurons (SN)[76]
RatInhalationBehavioral testsIncreased freezing behavior Decreased exploratory behavior [77]
Lipid peroxidation assayIncreased lipid peroxidation
Neurodegeneration
Electron microscopy
Microdialysis/HPLC
Changes in neurotransmitter levels
OzoneRat(ovariectomized)InhalationBehavioral tests
Lipid peroxidation assay
Impaired olfactory perception and social recognition memory
Increased lipid peroxidation
[71]
RatInhalationBehavioral tests
Lipid peroxidation assay
Impaired memory
Increased lipid peroxidation
[78]
RatInhalationIHCIncreased VEGF, IL-6 and TNFα[79]
RatInhalationIHCIncreased c-Fos expression in different brain regions including NTS[43]

Abbreviations: apolipoprotein E (ApoE), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV(CaMKIV), concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), dopaminergic (DA), diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), heme oxygenase (HO), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), allograft inflammatory factor 1(IBA1), immunohistochemistry (IHC), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs), nanosized carbon black (NSCB), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), residual oil fly ash (ROFA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), substantia nigra (SN), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.