(a)
(b)
Figure 3: Illustration of the devastating effects of Aluminum on a typical cell related to sulfate inactivation, G-protein signaling, and calmodulin signaling. (a) A healthy cell without Al contamination. eNOS, attached to the membrane at a caveola, produces sulfate, which maintains a healthy glycocalyx with sufficient negative charge. (b) Al binds to the sulfates, eliminating the negative charge, which allows cytokines to penetrate through the glycocalyx, activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling cascades. disrupts the signal, acting as a phosphate mimic, and Al binds to CaM, inducing eNOS detachment from the membrane. Phosphorylation cascades activate eNOS to produce abundant NO released into the cytoplasm, instead of producing sulfate to enrich the glycocalyx.