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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2015, Article ID 407654, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/407654
Research Article

Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

1Research Center of Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, 13635-900 Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
2Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo (ICAQF-UNIFESP), Campus Diadema, 09913-030 Diadema, SP, Brazil
3College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Tocantins, BR 153, Rural Zone Km 112, 77804-970 Araguaina, TO, Brazil

Received 7 February 2015; Revised 15 May 2015; Accepted 18 May 2015

Academic Editor: Steven J. Bursian

Copyright © 2015 André T. Gotardo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis.