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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2018, Article ID 2637209, 9 pages
Research Article

Implementation of Fractal Dimension and Self-Organizing Map to Detect Toxic Effects of Toluene on Movement Tracks of Daphnia magna

1The Key Laboratory of Water and Air Pollution Control of Guangdong Province, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEP, Guangzhou 510655, China
2Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Chunlei Xia; moc.liamg@9002aix.c and Zhongya Fan; gro.seics@aygnohznaf

Received 28 September 2017; Revised 17 January 2018; Accepted 24 January 2018; Published 26 February 2018

Academic Editor: Xiaohui Zhang

Copyright © 2018 Yuedan Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Movement behaviors of an indicator species, Daphnia magna, in response to contaminants have been implemented to monitor environmental disturbances. Complexity in movement tracks of Daphnia magna was characterized by use of fractal dimension and self-organizing map. The individual movement tracks of D. magna were continuously recorded for 24 hours before and after treatments with toluene at the concentration of 10 mg/L, respectively. The general complexity in movement tracks (10 minutes) was characterized by fractal dimension. Results showed that average fractal dimension of movement tracks was decreased from 1.62 to 1.22 after treatments. The instantaneous movement parameters of movement segments in 5 s were input into the self-organizing map to investigate the swimming pattern changes under stresses of toluene. Abnormal behaviors of D. magna are more frequently observed after treatments than before treatments. Computational methods in ecological informatics could be utilized to obtain the useful information in behavioral data of D. magna and would be further applied as an in situ monitoring tool in water environment.