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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2019, Article ID 5767012, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5767012
Research Article

Hepatic and Renal Toxicity Induced by TiO2 Nanoparticles in Rats: A Morphological and Metabonomic Study

1Laboratory of Histology, University of Mons, Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgium
2Laboratory of Human Biology & Toxicology, University of Mons, Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgium
3Laboratory of General, Organic and Biomedical Chemistry, NMR and Molecular Imaging Laboratory, University of Mons, Institute for Health Sciences and Technology and Biosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgium
4Center for Microscopy and Molecular Imaging (CMMI), 6041 Gosselies, Belgium

Correspondence should be addressed to Denis Nonclercq; eb.ca.snomu@qcrelcnon.sined

Received 17 September 2018; Revised 13 November 2018; Accepted 21 January 2019; Published 3 March 2019

Guest Editor: Nikhat J. Siddiqi

Copyright © 2019 Xavier Valentini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are produced abundantly and are frequently used as a white pigment in the manufacture of paints, foods, paper, and toothpaste. Despite the wide ranges of uses, there is a lack of information on the impact of NPs on animal and human health. In the present study, rats were exposed to different doses of TiO2 nanoparticles and sacrificed, respectively, 4 days, 1 month, and 2 months after treatment. Dosage of TiO2 in tissues was performed by ICP-AES and revealed an important accumulation of TiO2 in the liver. The nanoparticles induced morphological and physiological alterations in liver and kidney. In the liver, these alterations mainly affect the hepatocytes located around the centrilobular veins. These cells were the site of an oxidative stress evidenced by immunocytochemical detection of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Kupffer cells are also the site of an important oxidative stress following the massive internalization of TiO2 nanoparticles. Enzymatic markers of liver and kidney functions (such as AST and uric acid) are also disrupted only in animals exposed to highest doses. The metabonomic approach allowed us to detect modifications in urine samples already detectable after 4 days in animals treated at the lowest dose. This metabonomic pattern testifies an oxidative stress as well as renal and hepatic alterations.