Journal of Textiles

Journal of Textiles / 2014 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2014 |Article ID 368929 |

Kiruthika Deivasigamani, Siva Kumar Kolandaivel, Kavitha Krishnamoorthi, "A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit", Journal of Textiles, vol. 2014, Article ID 368929, 6 pages, 2014.

A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit

Academic Editor: Ajoy K. Sarkar
Received31 Jul 2014
Accepted11 Nov 2014
Published01 Dec 2014


“Bed sores” owe their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure, are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and “pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts, dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1 : 2 and 2 : 1) of two herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits) were prepared with and without binder (chitosan). Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in the ratio of 2 : 1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination for the final product.

1. Introduction

The skin is a large barrier organ that protects the human body from environmental hazards (heat, cold, chemicals, mechanical forces, etc.) and maintains the integrity of the body, whereas the clothing system provides extra layer(s) of barrier to enhance the aesthetic, thermophysiological, and sensorial comfort of the wearer [1]. However, direct contact and interactions between textiles and skin may cause reactions, even damage or diseases [2] (see Figure 1).

Bed sores can result from one period of sustained pressure on the skin; however, most bed sores probably occur as a result of repeated incidents of blood flow interruption without adequate time for recovery. In fact, low pressure endured for long periods of time is believed to be more significant in producing pressure ulcers than higher pressure for shorter durations. The role that textiles play in the prevention and formation of these injuries is examined.

2. Materials and Methodology

2.1. Fabric Particulars

Plain weave cotton fabric with 60s yarn count, EPI: 88, and PPI: 86.

2.2. Herb Particulars

See Table 1.

SI numberBotanical nameCommon nameChemical constituents

()Mangifera indica [3]Mango (leaf)C-Glucoside xanthone mangiferin, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, amino acids, proteins, euxanthin acid, and euxanthon.

()Triphala dried fruits
(a)Terminalia chebula [4]Chebulic myrobalan Tannins, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, ellagic acid, a tannin terchebin, an ellagitannin terchebulin, syringic acid, and gallic acid.
(b)Terminalia bellerica [5]Belleric myrobalan Hexahydroxydiphenic acid ester, -sitosterol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, chebulagic acid, mannitol, glucose, galactose, and rhamnose.
(c)Emblica officinalis [6]Indian gooseberry/amlaOrganic acids—ascorbic acid, vitamin, tannin; bioflavonoids—quercetin, kaempferol; polyphenols—gallic acid; cytokinins—zeatin.

2.3. Methodology

The selected herbs were dried in sunshade and grinded. Methanol extract of the herbs was obtained and tested for antibacterial and wound healing property. Chitosan was then diluted with citric acid. Scoured and bleached fabric was padded, dried, and cured with and without binder. Fabric was then tested for its antibacterial and wound healing property, washing fastness, air permeability, wicking ability, and water absorbency. Finally its results were discussed (see Figure 2).

2.4. Finishing Agents

Methanol extract of Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) has the antibacterial and wound healing property. 25 grams of herbal powder is dissolved in 100 mL of methanol and then it is concentrated into 50 mL using Soxhlet apparatus to obtain the extract.

2.4.1. Recipe

See Table 2.


Mangifera indica extract 2%1%2%1%
Triphala dried fruits extract 1%2%1%2%
Chitosan diluted with citric acid (fabric dipped for 30 min)6%6%
MLR ratio (fabric dipped for 2 hrs)1 : 201 : 201 : 201 : 20
Drying (for 5 min)80°C80°C80°C80°C
Curing (for 2 min)150–180°C150–180°C150–180°C150–180°C

denotes that samples M1 and M2 are not treated with Chitosan.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Wickability

Fabric specimen is cut into the size of and hung over the stand. A beaker is filled with tinted distilled water. The lower end of the fabric strip is made to touch the water in such a way that half an inch height of the fabric is kept immersed inside the water. To keep the fabric strip in straight configuration a load of 10 g of weight is applied to the bottom of it. The rise of the water level in the fabric is measured after 10 minutes.

The wickability of treated and untreated plain weave cotton fabric samples was assessed by time for wetting. The vertical wicking test results are shown the table.

3.1.1. Wickability Test Results

The wicking property of the finished fabric has been improved for all the samples when compared with the bleached fabric. Wickability of the samples treated with chitosan is highly increased (see Table 3 and Figure 3).

SI numberType of the sampleWicking height in centimeters

1Bleached fabric5
2Sample 1-M17.5
3Sample 2-M27.5
4Sample 3-C19
5Sample 4-C29.5

3.2. Drop Test

It is used to measure the time taken for the fabric to absorb a drop of water. The absorption rate of fabric changes as per the thickness of the fabric, weave structure, and finishes applied to the fabric.

3.2.1. Drop Test Results

The time taken to absorb a drop of water is decreased in the finished samples when compared with the bleached sample. This shows that the absorbency is increased after finishing. Comparing to all the four samples sample 3-C1 showed good absorbency (see Table 4 and Figure 4).

SI numberName of the samplesTime taken to absorb a drop of water in seconds
Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3AVG

1Bleached fabric11.3610.9110.8411.03
2Sample 1-M111.2511.2912.5011.68
3Sample 2-M212.6212.8912.0812.53
4Sample 3-C19.569.039.339.30
5Sample 4-C210.3610.3710.6710.46

3.3. Air Permeability

It is the volume of air measured in cubic cm passed per second through 1 cm2 for the fabric at a pressure one cm head of water. It is measured by using air permeability tester. The air permeability of a fabric is a measure of how well it allows the passage of air through it.

3.3.1. Air Permeability Test to Various Fabrics

Air permeability is an important factor in the performance of textile materials used to provide an indication of the breathability of coated fabrics. The air permeability of treated and untreated plain weave of cotton fabric samples was assessed. Consider where = rotameter reading and  cm2 (testing area).

3.3.2. Air Permeability Test Results

Air permeability of the plain weave cotton fabric is high in all the treated samples compared to the untreated samples (see Table 5 and Figure 5).

SI numberName of the samples Rotameter readingAir permeabilityAir permeability
Trial 1Trial 2AVG(cc/sec/cm)2(cc/sec/cm)2/60

1Bleached fabric24230427318.90.315
2Sample 1-M1376344360250.416
3Sample 2-M245041043029.80.496
4Sample 3-C136037036525.30.422
5Sample 4-C248049048533.60.561

3.4. Antibacterial Test
3.4.1. Results of Antibacterial Activity of the Herbal Extracts (Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test)

Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (see Table 6 and Figure 6).

Plant extract Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Concentration25 L50 L75 L100 L25 L50 L75 L100 L

Mangifera indica NilNil6 mm11 mmNilNil8 mm12 mm
Triphala dried fruits11 mm13 mm15 mm21 mm10 mm12 mm14 mm16 mm

3.4.2. Results of Antibacterial Activity of Textile Fabric

Only sample 1-M1 and sample 3-C1 have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (see Table 7 and Figure 7).

SI numberName of the samplesStaphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa

1Sample 1-M13 mmNil
2Sample 2-M2NilNil
3Sample 3-C111 mmNil
4Sample 4-C2NilNil
Control (chloramphenicol)24 mm10 mm

3.5. Wound Healing Test: Angiogenic Activity of the Herbal Extract and Herbal Based Textile Fabric

The herbal extract of Triphala dried fruits containing compounds with angiogenesis modulating properties showed strong angiogenic activity in CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) treated with herbal extract, by increasing the size and number of blood vessels as compared to the control.

The herbal based treated cloth C1 showed better angiogenic activity in CAM. The size and number of blood vessels were high compared to control egg treated with saline (see Table 8 and Figure 8).

Sample nameNumber of blood vessel formation

Triphala dried fruits 12
M2 Nil

3.6. Washing Fastness Test
3.6.1. Results of Washing Fastness Test for Its Antibacterial Property

Only sample C1 has the washing fastness of antibacterial property for up to 3 washes, which shows that chitosan acts as a binder up to certain level (see Table 9).

SI numberName of the sampleStaphylococcus aureus

1C1, up to 3 washes3 mm
2C1, up to 5 washesNil
Control (chloramphenicol)24 mm

3.6.2. Results of Washing Fastness Test for Its Wound Healing Property

Only sample C1 has the washing fastness for wound healing property for more than 10 washes, which shows that chitosan acts as a binder up to certain level (see Table 10).

Sample nameNumber of blood vessel formation

C1, up to 3 washes14
C1, up to 5 washes13
C1, up to 10 washes10

4. Conclusion

In this work, herbal based antibacterial finish was applied to the cotton fabric. Extracts of Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruit were applied to the fabric in two different ratios with and without the binder chitosan.

Based on the tests conducted, the obtained results were shown in the tables and figures. According to the results, the treated samples M1 and C1 showed good antibacterial property and sample C1 showed excellent wound healing property. The samples treated with chitosan have high wickability and water absorbency properties. Air permeability in the bleached fabric is low and it has been increased in all the treated samples. Washing fastness result shows that the fabric treated with chitosan shows antibacterial property for up to 3 washes and wound healing property for more than 10 washes.

So it is concluded that sample C1 has much better properties for preventing bed sore. The herbal extract of Mangifera indica shows good antibacterial property when applied to the fabric compared to the Triphala dried fruits and chitosan has good binding property. And it is suggested that this fabric could be used for preventing bed sore and also for other applications where antibacterial finish is required. And also it gives cost-wise benefit to people. In addition, it is environment friendly.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright © 2014 Kiruthika Deivasigamani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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