Journal of Tropical Medicine
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Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision80 days
Acceptance to publication16 days
CiteScore2.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.670
Impact Factor2.488

A Bayesian Prediction Spatial Model for Confirmed Dengue Cases in the State of Chiapas, Mexico

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 Journal profile

Journal of Tropical Medicine publishes articles on all aspects of tropical diseases. Topics include pathology, diagnosis and treatment, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public health issues.

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Journal of Tropical Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Review Article

Assessing the Roles of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance and the Host Pharmacogenetics in Drug-Resistant Malaria

Malaria caused by the Plasmodium parasites is a major public health concern in malaria-endemic regions with P. falciparum causing the most severe form of the disease. The use of antimalarial drugs for the management of the disease proves to be one of the best methods to manage the disease. Unfortunately, P. falciparum has developed resistance to almost all the current in-use antimalarial drugs. Parasite development of resistance is primarily caused by both parasite and host genetic factors. The parasite genetic factors involve undergoing mutation in the drug target sites or increasing the drug target gene copy number to prevent the intended action of the antimalarial drugs. The host pharmacogenetic factors which determine how a particular antimalarial drug is metabolized could result in variations of drug plasma concentration and consequently contribute to variable treatment outcomes and the emergence or propagation of resistant parasites. Since both host and parasite genomes play a role in antimalarial drug action, a key question often asked is, “which of the two strongly drives or controls antimalarial drug resistance?” A major finding in our recent study published in the Malaria Journal indicates that the parasite’s genetic factors rather than the host are likely to energize resistance to an antimalarial drug. However, others have reported contrary findings suggesting that the host genetic factors are the force behind resistance to antimalarial drugs. To bring clarity to these observations, there is the need for deciphering the major driving force behind antimalarial drug resistance through optimized strategies aimed at alleviating the phenomenon. In this direction, literature was systematically reviewed to establish the role and importance of each of the two factors aforementioned in the etiology of drug-resistant malaria. Using Internet search engines such as Pubmed and Google, we looked for terms likely to give the desired information which we herein present. We then went ahead to leverage the obtained information to discuss the globally avid aim of combating antimalarial drug resistance.

Research Article

Rationalization of the Laboratory Diagnosis for Good Management of Malaria: Lessons from Transitional Methods

Introduction. Malaria is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In clinical practice, the main concern is the overdiagnosis of malaria leading to inappropriate drug prescription without laboratory confirmation. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate clinical examination reliability compared with translational laboratory methods of malaria diagnosis. Methods. The study was conducted in Goundi Hospital among hospitalized patients over a seven-month period. Patients were interviewed, and malaria tests done included the Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Results. Among 1,874 participants, 674 (35.96%) patients had positive Giemsa-stained thick blood films. The rate of positivity is higher for patients under 5 years of age. The parasite densities were between 160 and 84.000 parasites/μL. The threshold pyrogen of the parasitic density was around 10.000 parasites/μL for patients between 0 and 11 months of age, between 1 and 4 years of age, and between 5 and 14 years of age. This threshold was lower for patients over 15 years of age. The study reported some issues in the findings: 60.88% (607/997) cases of fever without positivity of the blood thick smear and 40.13% (284/674) cases of positivity of the thick drop without fever. The positive predictive value of malaria was between 80 and 85% for patients under 5 years of age. This value is lower for patients between 5 and 14 years of age and patients over 15 years of age. Conclusion. A presumptive diagnosis of malaria should be confirmed by the laboratory in all suspected cases in all possible scenarios. Every parasitemia should be followed by the calculation of parasitic density. However, for the children under 5 years of age in areas of high transmission, the presumptive diagnosis of malaria in certain circumstances could be considered.

Research Article

Evaluation of Pediatric COVID-19 Screening Process in a Tertiary Hospital of Indonesia

Objectives. To identify parameters that can improve the effectiveness of COVID-19 screening in the pediatric population according to the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients screened for COVID-19 at our hospital. Methods. A cross-sectional study of suspected and confirmed pediatric patients (0–18 years old) with COVID-19 using data from the electronic medical records of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Central Hospital from March to December 2020. Results. From 1,018 data of suspected COVID-19 pediatric patients, there were 94 (9.2%) confirmed cases of COVID-19. The proportions of children with travel history (), positive contact history (), fever ≥38°C (), cough (), and abdominal pain () were significantly higher in the confirmed COVID-19 group compared to the non-COVID-19 group. Conclusions. A majority of the confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients have travel and positive contact history, along with symptoms of fever, cough, and abdominal pain. However, these are nonspecific symptoms that may also be misdiagnosed as other diseases. Improving access and turnaround time of the RT-PCR test is mandatory, as no specific screening variables have been identified.

Research Article

Role Mismatch in Medical Decision-Making Participation Is Associated with Anxiety and Depression in Family Members of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

This study aimed to investigate the mismatch between the preferred and actual roles in the medical decision-making of intensive care unit (ICU) patients’ family members and the relationship between the role mismatch of family members’ decisions and anxiety and depression syndromes. A total of 223 family members of ICU patients in the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University in China were enrolled. The simple Chinese version of the Control Preference Scale was used to complete the surveys to assess the preferred and actual roles, and anxiety and depression syndromes were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. For the preferred and actual roles, the active role rates were 16.1% and 8.1%, the cooperative role rates were 49.3% and 31.4%, and the passive role rates were 34.5% and 60.5%, respectively. The incidence of mismatch was 43.0% between the preferred and actual roles, and the consistency between their preferred and actual decision-making roles was poor (kappa = 0.309,  < 0.001). Family members with mismatched decision-making roles had significantly higher incidence rates of anxiety (90.6% vs. 57.5%,  < 0.001) and depression (86.5% vs. 63.0%,  < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that mismatches in decision-making roles remained independently associated with these outcomes after adjustment for family members’ sociodemographic features. The results of the present study demonstrate that the preferred role of ICU patients’ family members is mainly cooperative, and the actual role is mainly passive. The mismatch between the preferred and actual roles is associated with anxiety and depression among the ICU patients’ family members.

Research Article

Diagnostic Performance of Three rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Two Direct Agglutination Tests for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southern Iran

To evaluate the diagnostic performance of five alternative serodiagnostic tests, serum samples from 100 confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, 197 healthy endemic individuals, and 58 non-VL patients living in southern Iran were compared. The VL patients were defined as individuals with a positive result of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), having clinical signs and symptoms and appropriate response to treatment. The index tests were two direct agglutination tests, DAT-ITM (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium) and DAT-KIT (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), and three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), Kalazar Detect (InBios International Inc., USA), IT Leish (Bio-Rad, catalog 710124), and Leishmania test (Cypress Diagnostic Company, Belgium). Sensitivities of DAT-ITM and DAT-KIT were low, respectively, 56% and 59%, while specificities were acceptable, respectively, 98% and 93%. Observed sensitivities and specificities of RDTs were higher (71%, 81%, 70% and 99%, 99%, 98% for Kalazar Detect, IT Leish, and Leishmania test, respectively). Even with a maximum sensitivity of 81%, RDTs missed almost one-fifth of VL patients that were positive in IFAT. We conclude that RDTs in VL patients do not possess adequate performance in southern Iran and require some improvement, but they can still be helpful in the diagnosis and screening of the disease in this region due to their high specificity and speed.

Research Article

Assessment of Intestinal Parasites, Enteric Bacterial Infections, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Street Food Handlers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

Background. Food-borne infections are common public health problems worldwide. A street food handler with poor personal hygiene contributes to the transmission of intestinal parasites and enteric bacteria to the public via contaminated foods. In Ethiopia, health risks associated with street food are common. Previous studies in this area are scanty. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, enteric bacterial infections, and antimicrobial susceptibility among street food handlers in Jimma town. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2020 among 260 street food handlers in Jimma town. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data through face-to-face interviews. About 3 grams of the fecal specimen were collected from each food handler for bacterial culture and concentration techniques. The data were entered into Epi-Data 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Associated factors were identified by using binary logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant association was determined at a p-value less than 0.05. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteric bacterial pathogens was 39.2% (33.3%–45.2%) and 8.85% (5.4%–12.3%), respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%) and Salmonella (8.1%) were the most predominant parasite and enteric bacterial isolates, respectively. Not trimming fingernails (AOR = 2.884; 95% CI: 1.682–4.945) and not washing hands with soap after toilet (AOR = 3.342; 95% CI: 1.939–5.761) were factors associated with increased risk of infection by intestinal parasites or enteric bacterial pathogens. All Salmonella and Shigella isolates were 100% resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion. The infection with intestinal parasites and enteric bacterial pathogens detected in this study indicated that street food handlers may serve as sources of pathogens/parasites for transmission and experience morbidities due to the infections. Therefore, periodic medical checkups and creating awareness of personal hygiene are mandatory to reduce the risk of infections.

Journal of Tropical Medicine
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate14%
Submission to final decision80 days
Acceptance to publication16 days
CiteScore2.700
Journal Citation Indicator0.670
Impact Factor2.488
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.