Phytochemicals Analysis, In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Extracts, and Molecular Docking Studies of the Isolated Compounds from Melhania zavattarii Cufod LeavesRead the full article
Journal of Tropical Medicine publishes articles on all aspects of tropical diseases. Topics include pathology, diagnosis and treatment, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public health issues.
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Distribution, Prevalence, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Infectious Noncholera Vibrio Species in Malaysia
Background. The noncholera Vibrio spp. which cause vibriosis are abundantly found in our water ecosystem. These bacteria could negatively affect both humans and animals. To date, there is a paucity of information available on the existence and pathogenicity of this particular noncholera Vibrio spp. in Malaysia in comparison to their counterpart, Vibrio cholera. Methods. In this study, we extracted retrospective data from Malaysian surveillance database. Analysis was carried out using WHONET software focusing noncholera Vibrio spp. including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio hollisae (Grimontia hollisae), Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio metschnikovii, and Vibrio furnissii. Results. Here, we report the first distribution and prevalence of these species isolated in Malaysia together with the antibiotic sensitivity profile based on the species. We found that V. parahaemolyticus is the predominant species isolated in Malaysia. Noticeably, across the study period, V. fluvialis is becoming more prevalent, as compared to V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, this study also reports the first isolation of pathogenic V. furnissii from stool in Malaysia. Conclusion. These data represent an important step toward understanding the potential emergence of noncholera Vibrio spp. outbreaks.
Severity and Determinants of Anemia in TB/HIV Coinfected Adults at Mekelle, Ethiopia: Hospital Based Retrospective Study
Background. Anemia has up to 87% prevalence in high tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden settings of the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ethiopia. It increases lost to follow-up (LTFU) rate, reduces quality of life, and shortens the survival of TB/HIV coinfected patients. However, there is limited information on severity level and determinants of anemia in TB/HIV coinfected adults in the study setting in particular. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess severity level and determinants of TB/HIV-associated anemia. Methods. A hospital based retrospective study was conducted among 305 TB/HIV coinfected adults who enrolled for antiretroviral therapy (ART) from January, 2009 to December, 2016 in two public hospital of Mekelle, Ethiopia, by reviewing ART register. A multiple logit model was fitted to identify the baseline determinants of anemia using 95% confidence level or 5% level of significance for adjusted odds ratio (AOR). Results. In the current study, the cumulative baseline prevalence of anemia was 59.0% (95% CI: 53.3%–64.6%). Considering severity level, the prevalence was 6.2%, 28.2%, and 24.6% for severe, moderate, and mild anemia, respectively. Being female (AOR = 0.380; 95% CI: 0.226–0.640), body mass index (AOR = 0.913; 95% CI: 0.836–0.998) reduces the odds of developing anemia whereas baseline ambulatory functional status (AOR = 2.139; 95% CI: 1.189–3.846), bedridden functional status (AOR = 2.208; 95% CI: 1.002–4.863), HIV clinical stage III (AOR = 2.565; 95% CI: 1.030–6.384), and HIV clinical stage IV (AOR = 2.590; 95% CI: 1.006–6.669) increased the odds of developing anemia for TB/HIV coinfected adults. Conclusions. In the current study, significant TB/HIV-associated severe anemia was assessed which accounted for nearly one-ninth of all anemia cases while nearly half were moderate anemia. Therefore, curious attention has to be given for the management of TB/HIV-associated severe anemia in particular and anemia in general to reducing anemia associated bad outcomes most importantly death.
Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites among Children under Five Years of Age Attended at Bachuma Primary Hospital, West Omo Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. In regions of the world with low resources, such as Ethiopia, intestinal parasite diseases are still highly prevalent, especially in children. Poor personal and environmental hygiene, as well as unsafe and low-quality drinking water, are the main causes of this. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of intestinal parasites and risk factors among children under 5 years age at Bachuma Primary Hospital in 2022. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2022 to December 2022 at Bachuma Primary Hospital, West Omo Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Stool sample was collected from randomly selected children who were ordered to have their stool examined at the hospital laboratory and wet mount was prepared using normal saline to detect the different stage of intestinal parasites microscopically. Moreover, data related to the sociodemographic and associated risk factors was collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the characteristics of the study participants and determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Data were entered into Epi-data manager and analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) version 25.0, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, with variables with a value of <0.05 considered statistically significant. Result: Infection with at least one intestinal parasite among children was 29.4% (95% CI: 24.5–34.7). Ascaris lumbricoide and Giardia lamblia were responsible for 8% (26/323) and 4% (13/323) of the prevalence of helminth and protozoans, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that children whose residence was rural had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 5.048 (), those who did not wash their hands before meals had an AOR of 7.749 (), a child with not trimmed fingernails had an AOR of 2.752 (), a child who frequently experienced stomach pain and whose source of water was pond had an AOR of 2.415 () and 3.796 (), respectively. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of intestinal parasites recorded was low. Rural residency, absence of child hand washing practice before meal, and not trimming fingernail were among factors significantly associated with intestinal parasite infection.
Haematopinus suis Infestation in Pig Farms in Busogo Sector, Rwanda
Haematopinus suis(H. suis) is a common ectoparasite of pigs and is economically important worldwide. H. suis is responsible for anemia and poor feed conversion rate that lead to poor growth in pig husbandry. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors of H. suis in pigs through a cross-sectional survey in Busogo sector of Musanze district. Fifty-five (55) pigs, representing 10% of 555 pigs from 20 farms, were examined physically for the presence of H. suis, and a total number of 559 H. suis were collected from them in Busogo sector of Musanze district. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results showed that out of 55 pigs, a total number of 35 pigs (63.6%), were found infested with H. suis in Busogo sector of Musanze district. The infestation by H. suis was associated with the farming system, animal breeds, animal’s category, sex, pig hygiene, and piggery hygiene. Results showed a high ( < 0.05) prevalence in pigs reared in the intensive system (91.4%), whereas large whites were the most affected breed (60%). The prevalence of H. suis varied significantly ( < 0.05) among sexes, and females were the most affected (60%). Results related to pig hygiene revealed that all farmers were practicing washing skin three times per week, whereas only 60.0% of them were removing the bedding in their piggery. The study concluded that H. suis is present and remains a problem in the study area. Therefore, the study recommends to create farmer’s awareness on the disease in pigs and its impact through training. Researchers should continue further studies on H. suis prevention with appropriate pig husbandry and management practices and the efficacy of acaricides used.
Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Potentials of the Chewing Stick, Salvadora persica
Purpose and Objectives. The quest for psychoactive plants possessing therapeutic potential has evolved emerging interest. Salvadora persica (Sp), belonging to the Salvadoraceae family, known as miswak, is a medicinal plant; most of its published research is on oral health, with promising antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity. However, given its widespread use, only few studies are associated with its potential neuropharmacological effect. Therefore, this study aims to assess the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of Salvadora persica using animal models. Materials and Methods. Salvadora persica stem bark was extracted with two different solvents, i.e., ethyl acetate and water, and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed. Two behavioral models were used: an elevated plus maze test (EPM) and the light and dark model test for anxiolytic parameters, and a forced swim test (FST) for antidepressant effects. Healthy mice weighing 18−40 gms were treated orally in four groups (n = 6), i.e., negative control treated with normal saline and positive control with 1 mg/kg diazepam (EPM) and 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (FST), and the test groups were treated with 500 mg/kg of aqueous and ethyl acetate Sp extract. The number of entries and duration spent in the open arm for 5 minutes were the parameters for evaluating the anxiolytic activity (EPM). Duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST model. Results. In EPM, both the Sp extracts significantly ( < 0.005) increased the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms and was much similar to those of diazepam. Similarly, these extracts and fluoxetine significantly ( < 0.005) decreased the immobility time in FST. Conclusion. The results suggest the therapeutic potential of Salvadora persica an alternative in the management of comorbid anxiety and depression.
Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infection and Associated Factors in Selected Districts of the Kaffa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Malaria remains a serious public health problem, particularly in resource scarce areas of the world. The number of malaria cases has dropped remarkably in Ethiopia over the last decade, and efforts to eliminate the disease are underway. Asymptomatic infections may pose significant challenges to the elimination program. The essence of this study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and the associated factors among communities of the selected districts in the Kaffa zone. Materials and Methods. April to May and September to October 2021, were the two seasons in which the community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. Capillary blood from a finger prick was examined by light microscopy (LM) and screened using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The participants’ sociodemographic characteristics and malaria prevention measures were collected using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data entry and analyses were carried out using EpiData and SPSS version 25.0. Logistic regression (bivariate and multivariable) analyses were carried out to assess the possible associations between the dependent variable and the associated factors. Results. 566 study participants were involved in the two cross-sectional surveys, including 234 male and 332 female subjects with a mean age of 18.486 (SD ± 15.167). Thirty-eight blood samples (6.7%) were found to be positive for Plasmodium species tested by both LM and RDT. Last night’s use of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) (AOR = 2.448, 95% CI: 1.009 5.938, ), presence of eave (AOR = 4.144, 95% CI: 1.049–16.363, ), and house sprayed in the last year (AOR = 5.206, 95% CI: 2.176–12.455, ) were among factors that showed significant association with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection. Conclusion. The asymptomatic Plasmodium infection prevalence recorded in the study area was low. Last night’s LLIN usage, the presence of an eave, a house sprayed in the last year, and the presence of stagnant water near the home of the study participants were among the factors associated with an increased risk of catching the disease.