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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 876742, 11 pages
Research Article

Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results

1Laboratory Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
2Division of Vector Biology & Control, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RMRIMS), Patna 800 007, India
3National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Director General and Health Services, New Delhi 110054, India
4Department of Microbiology, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Dharan 56700, Nepal
5Department of Community Medicine and Family Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University (IOM), Kathmandu 44613, Nepal
6Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
7Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
8Intelligent Vector Control Consortium, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L35QA, UK
9Regional Office for South-East Asia, World Health Organization, New Delhi 110002, India

Received 31 March 2011; Revised 31 May 2011; Accepted 2 June 2011

Academic Editor: Shyam Sundar

Copyright © 2011 M. Mamun Huda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E) toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys). Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response.