Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 981879, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/981879
Review Article

Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Núcleo de Pesquisas e Estudos Ambientais e Biológicos, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano—Campus Urutaí, Rodovia Geraldo Silva Nascimento km 2.5, 75790-000 Urutaí, GO, Brazil
2Laboratório de Doença de Chagas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil

Received 3 September 2010; Revised 30 November 2010; Accepted 17 February 2011

Academic Editor: R. Corrêa-Oliveira

Copyright © 2011 Guilherme Malafaia and André Talvani. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Zubin and C. Ee-Looi, “Protein energy malnutrition,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1055–1068, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. R. Coura and J. C. P. Dias, “Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease—100 years after its discovery,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Blössner and M. De Onis, Malnutrition: Quantifying the Health Impact at National and Local Levels, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.
  4. World Health Organization, “New global effort to eliminate Chagas disease,” 2007, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2007/pr36/en/index.html.
  5. S. A. Akuyam, “A review of some metabolic changes in protein-energy malnutrition,” The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. L. Sawaya, “Desnutrição: consequências em longo prazo e efeitos da recuperação nutricional,” Estudos Avancados, vol. 20, no. 58, pp. 147–158, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. M. Pablo, M. A. Izaga, and L. A. Alday, “Assessment of nutritional status on hospital admission: nutritional scores,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 824–831, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Singh, K. Watt, R. Veitch, M. Cantor, and D. R. Duerksen, “Malnutrition is prevalent in hospitalized medical patients: are housestaff identifying the malnourished patient?” Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 350–354, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. W. Bavelaar, C. D. Otter, A. A. van Bodegraven, A. Thijs, and M. A. E. van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, “Diagnosis and treatment of (disease-related) in-hospital malnutrition: the performance of medical and nursing staff,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 431–438, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Malafaia, “Protein-energy malnutrition as an aggravating condition for the health of hospitalized patients,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Ciências da Saúde, vol. 34, pp. 101–107, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  11. L. Allen, B. Benoist, O. Dary, and R. Hurrell, Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
  12. J. L. Ambrus Sr. and J. L. Ambrus Jr., “Nutrition and infectious diseases in developing countries and problems of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 229, no. 6, pp. 464–472, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Macallan, “Malnutrition and infection,” Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 14–16, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. U. E. Schaible and S. H. E. Kaufmann, “Malnutrition and infection: complex mechanisms and global impacts,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, article e115, pp. 0806–0812, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. W. Solomons, “Malnutrition and infection: an update,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. S5–S10, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Katona and J. Katona-Apte, “The interaction between nutrition and infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1582–1588, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Rakotoarimanana, “Nutrition and infection,” Revue Medicale Suisse, vol. 5, no. 220, pp. 975–978, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. R. Koethe and D. C. Heimburger, “Nutritional aspects of HIV-associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1138S–1142S, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Gupta, R. Gupta, A. Atreja, M. Verma, and S. Vishvkarma, “Tuberculosis and nutrition,” Lung India, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. World Health Organization (WHO), “Malaria and malnutrition. WHO/RBM Consultation—Best practices and lessons learnt from implementing malaria control in complex emergencies in Africa 2000–2004,” 2005, http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/malaria_and_malnutrition/en/index.html.
  21. G. M. Anstead, B. Chandrasekar, W. Zhao, J. Yang, L. E. Perez, and P. C. Melby, “Malnutrition alters the innate immune response and increases early visceralization following Leishmania donovani infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 4709–4718, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Malafaia, T. D. Serafim, M. E. Silva, M. L. Pedrosa, and S. A. Rezende, “Protein-energy malnutrition decreases immune response to Leishmania chagasi vaccine in BALB/c mice,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 41–49, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. D. Serafim, G. Malafaia, M. E. Silva, M. L. Pedrosa, and S. A. Rezende, “Immune response to Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection is reduced in malnourished BALB/c mice,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 811–817, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. L. De Andrade and F. Zicker, “Chronic malnutrition and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in children,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 112–115, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Guhl, C. Jaramillo, G. A. Vallejo et al., “Isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in 4,000-year-old mummified human tissue from northern Chile,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 625–635, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. A. Nóbrega, M. H. Garcia, E. Tatto et al., “Oral transmission of chagas disease by consumption of Açaí palm fruit, Brazil,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 653–655, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Sathler-Avelar, D. M. Vitelli-Avelar, A. Teixeira-Carvalho, and O. A. Martins-Filho, “Innate immunity and regulatory T-cells in human Chagas disease: what must be understood?” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 104, no. 1, supplement, pp. 246–251, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. R. Coura, “Epidemiologic determinants of Chagas' disease in Brazil: the infection, the disease and its morbidity,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 83, pp. 392–402, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. M. Macedo and S. D. J. Pena, “Genetic variability of Trypanosoma cruzi: implications for the pathogenesis of Chagas disease,” Parasitology Today, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 119–124, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. G. Andrade, R. F. Campos, K. S. Castro Sobral, J. B. Magalhães, R. S. Pereira Guedes, and M. L. Guerreiro, “Reinfections with strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, of different biodemes as a factor of aggravation of myocarditis and myositis in mice,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. R. L. Teixeira, R. J. Nascimento, and N. R. Sturm, “Evolution and pathology in Chagas disease—a review,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 463–491, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. R. Coura, “Chagas disease: what is known and what is needed—a background article,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 113–122, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. D. L. Higuchi, L. A. Benvenuti, M. M. Reis, and M. Metzger, “Pathophysiology of the heart in Chagas' disease: current status and new developments,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 96–107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Moncayo and M. I. Ortiz Yanine, “An update on Chagas disease (human American trypanosomiasis),” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 663–677, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. V. A. Dos Santos, E. Roffê, H. C. Santiago et al., “Prevalence of CD8(+)alpha beta T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is associated with acquisition of CD62L(Low)LFA-1(High)VLA-4(High) activation phenotype and expression of IFN-gamma-inducible adhesion and chemoattractant molecules,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 971–984, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Talvani, C. S. Ribeiro, J. C. S. Aliberti et al., “Kinetics of cytokine gene expression in experimental chagasic cardiomyopathy: tissue parasitism and endogenous IFN-γ as important determinants of chemokine mRNA expression during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 851–866, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Talvani, M. O. C. Rocha, L. S. Barcelos, Y. M. Gomes, A. L. Ribeiro, and M. M. Teixeira, “Elevated concentrations of CCL2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in chagasic cardiomyopathy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 943–950, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Talvani, M. O. C. Rocha, A. L. Ribeiro, R. Correa-Oliveira, and M. M. Teixeira, “Chemokine receptor expression on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Chagas disease,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 214–220, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. S. Scrimshaw, C. E. Taylor, and J. E. Gordon, “Interactions of nutrition and infection,” Monograph Series. World Health Organization, vol. 57, pp. 3–329, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Malafaia, “Efeitos das deficiências de ferro e zinco no sistema imune,” Revista Pesquisa & Pós-Graduação, vol. 8, pp. 5–9, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  41. C. J. Field, I. R. Johnson, and P. D. Schley, “Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 16–32, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. R. S. Machado, T. Moraes-Santos, and A. B. M. Machado, “Cardiac noradrenalin in relation to protein malnutrition in chronic experimental Chagas' disease in the rat,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 835–838, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. G. Gomes, F. E. Pereira, G. C. Domingues, and J. R. Alves, “Effects of severe protein restriction in levels of parasitemia and in mortality of mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Carlomagno, G. Leer, M. Esteva, D. Hansen, and E. L. Segura, “Role of protein deficiency on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and on the degree of protection conferred by a flagellar fraction,” Journal of Nutritional Immunology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 37–45, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  45. I. P. Cintra, M. E. Silva, M. E. C. Silva et al., “Influence of dietary protein content on Trypanosoma cruzi infection in germfree and conventional mice,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 355–362, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. J. Earlam, “Gastrointestinal aspects of Chagas' disease,” The American Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 559–571, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. M. Anstead, B. Chandrasekar, Q. Zhang, and P. C. Melby, “Multinutrient undernutrition dysregulates the resident macrophage proinflammatory cytokine network, nuclear factor-κB activation, and nitric oxide production,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 982–991, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Abe, F. Akbar, B. Matsuura, N. Horiike, and M. Onji, “Defective antigen-presenting capacity of murine dendritic cells during starvation,” Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 265–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. T. Keusch and M. J. Farthing, “Nutrition and infection,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 6, pp. 131–154, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. T. Keusch, J. J. Urrutia, O. Guerrero, G. Castaneda, and H. Smeth Jr., “Serum opsonic activity in acute protein-calorie malnutrition,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 59, pp. 923–929, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  51. R. K. Chandra, “Serum complement and immunoconglutinin in malnutrition,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 225–229, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Scott, “The role of natural killer cells in host-parasite interactions,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. Cardillo, F. Q. Cunha, W. M. S. C. Tamashiro, M. Russo, S. B. Garcia, and J. Mengel, “NK 1.1+ Cells and T-cell activation in euthymic and thymectomized C57B1/6 mice during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 96–104, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. Cardillo, J. C. Voltarelli, S. G. Reed, and J. S. Silva, “Regulation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice by gamma interferon and interleukin 10: role of NK cells,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 128–134, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. Sugawara, H. Yamada, and S. Mizuno, “BCG vaccination enhances resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs fed a low casein diet,” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 259–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. T. Keusch, J. R. Cruz, and B. Torun, “Immature circulating lymphocytes in severely malnourished Guatemalan children,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 265–270, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  57. W. Savino, M. C. Postel-Vinay, S. Smaniotto, and M. Dardenne, “The thymus gland: a target organ for growth hormone,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 442–452, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Woodward, “Protein, calories, and immune defenses,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. S84–S92, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. O. Enwonwu, “Complex interactions between malnutrition, infection and immunity: relevance to HIV/AIDS infection,” Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research, vol. 1, pp. 6–14, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  60. O. Nájera, C. González, G. Toledo et al., “CD45RA and CD45RO isoforms in infected malnourished and infected well-nourished children,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 461–465, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. O. Nájera, C. González, G. Toledo, L. López, and R. Ortiz, “Flow cytometry study of lymphocyte subsets in malnourished and well-nourished children with bacterial infections,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 577–580, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Rodríguez, C. González, L. Flores, L. Jiménez-Zamudio, J. Graniel, and R. Ortiz, “Assessment by flow cytometry of cytokine production in malnourished children,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 502–507, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Woodward, L. Hillyer, and K. Hunt, “T cells with a quiescent phenotype (CD45RA+) are overabundant in the blood and involuted lymphoid tissues in wasting protein and energy deficiencies,” Immunology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 246–253, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. J. M. Ten Bruggencate, L. M. Hillyer, and B. D. Woodward, “The proportion of CD45RA+CD62L+ (quiescent-phenotype) T cells within the CD8+ subset increases in advanced weight loss in the protein- or energy-deficient weanling mouse,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 12, pp. 3266–3269, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. T. R. Neyestani and B. Woodward, “Blood concentrations of Th2-type immunoglobulins are selectively increased in weanling mice subjected to acute malnutrition,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 128–134, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Monjour, F. Bourdillon, A. M. Korinek et al., “Humoral immunity, 5 years after anti-tetanus vaccination, in a group of malaria-infected and malnourished African children,” Pathologie Biologie, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 235–239, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. M. Greenwood, A. M. Bradley-Moore, and A. K. Bradley, “The immune response to vaccination in undernourished and well-nourished Nigerian children,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 537–544, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  68. L. E. Caulfield, M. de Onis, M. Blössner, and R. E. Black, “Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles,” The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 193–198, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. R. Mora, M. Iwata, and U. H. Von Andrian, “Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 685–698, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. G. Yaeger and O. N. Miller, “Effect of malnutrition on susceptibility of rats to Trypanosoma cruzi. I. Thiamine deficiency,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 215–222, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. G. Yaeger and O. N. Miller, “Effect of malnutrition on susceptibility of rats to Trypanosoma cruzi. II. Riboflavin deficiency,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 227–231, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. G. Yaeger and O. N. Miller, “Effect of malnutrition on susceptibility of rats to Trypanosoma cruzi. III. Pantothenate deficiency,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 232–237, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. G. Yaeger and O. N. Miller, “Effect of malnutrition on susceptibility of rats to Trypanosoma cruzi. IV. Pyridoxine deficiency,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 238–244, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. G. Yaeger and O. N. Miller, “Effect of malnutrition on susceptibility of rats to Trypanosoma cruzi. V. Vitamin A deficiency,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. Lonsdale and R. J. Shamberger, “Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 205–211, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. K. Horwitt, E. Liebert, O. Kriesler, and P. Wittman, “Investigations of human requirements for B-complex vitamins. Bulletin of the National Research Council. Report of the Committee on Nutritional Aspects of Ageing, Food and Nutrition Board, Division of Biology and Agriculture,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, 1948.
  77. K. Inouye and E. katsura, “Clinical signs and metabolism of beriberi patients,” in Review of Japanese Literature on Beriberi and Thiamine, A. N. Shum and E. Katsura, Eds., pp. 29–63, Igaku Shoin Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 2nd edition, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  78. B. S. Platt, “Thiamine deficiency in human beriberi and in Wernicke's encephalopathy,” in Thiamine Deficiency, G. E. W. Wolstenholme and M. O'Connor, Eds., pp. 135–143, Little Brown & Co., Boston, Mass, USA, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  79. R. D. Williams, H. L. Mason, M. H. Power, and R. M. Wilder, “Induced thiamine (Vitamin Bl) deficiency in man; relation of depletion of thiamine to development of biochemical defect and of polyneuropathy,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 71, pp. 38–53, 1943. View at Google Scholar
  80. Z. J. Ke and G. E. Gibson, “Selective response of various brain cell types during neurodegeneration induced by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 361–369, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Bâ, “Metabolic and structural role of thiamine in nervous tissues,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 923–931, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. S. Hazell and R. F. Butterworth, “Update of cell damage mechanisms in thiamine deficiency: focus on oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation,” Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. Scalabrino, “Vitamin-regulated cytokines and growth factors in the CNS and elsewhere,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1309–1326, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. C. Rall and S. N. Meydani, “Vitamin B and immune competence,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 217–225, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. B. Stephensen, “Vitamin A, infection, and immune function,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 21, pp. 167–192, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. Mucida, Y. Park, and H. Cheroutre, “From the diet to the nucleus: vitamin A and TGF-β join efforts at the mucosal interface of the intestine,” Seminars in Immunology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. S. C. Carvalho, E. R. S. Camargos, C. T. Almeida et al., “Vitamin E deficiency enhances pathology in acute Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1025–1031, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Moriguchi, H. Miwa, M. Okamura, K. Maekawa, Y. Kishino, and K. Maeda, “Vitamin E is an important factor in T cell differentiation in thymus of F344 rats,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 451–463, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. B. Younes-Chennoufi, G. Said, H. Eisen, A. Durand, and M. Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz, “Cellular immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi is mediated by helper T cells (CD4+),” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 84–89, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. L. Tarleton, J. Sun, L. Zhang, and M. Postan, “Depletion of T-cell subpopulations results in exacerbation of myocarditis and parasitism in experimental Chagas' disease,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1820–1829, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. S. Mikhail and E. C. Rowland, “Trypanosoma cruzi antigen-specific antibody response in immunized mice during acute and chronic infection,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 690–697, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. M. T. Amarakoon, P. S. Tappia, and R. F. Grimble, “Endotoxin induced production of interleukin-6 is enhanced by vitamin E deficiency and reduced by black tea extract,” Inflammation Research, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 301–305, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. A. Beck, “Increased virulence of coxsackievirus B3 in mice due to vitamin E or selenium deficiency,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 966S–970S, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. F. Grimble, “Effect of antioxidative vitamins on immune function with clinical applications,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 312–320, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. F. Marra, R. DeFranco, C. Grappone et al., “Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 precedes monocyte recruitment in a rat model of acute liver injury, and is modulated by vitamin E,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 66–75, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Rimbach, A. M. Minihane, J. Majewicz et al., “Regulation of cell signalling by vitamin E,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 415–425, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Dhur, P. Galan, and S. Hercberg, “Iron status, immune capacity and resistance to infections,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. J. Oppenheimer, “Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 616S–633S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Hughes and P. Kelly, “Interactions of malnutrition and immune impairment, with specific reference to immunity against parasites,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 577–588, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. G. Lalonde and B. E. Holbein, “Role of iron in Trypanosoma cruzi infection of mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 470–476, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. L. Pedrosa, M. E. Silva, M. E. Silva, M. E. C. Silva, J. R. Nicoli, and E. C. Vieira, “The effect of iron deficiency and iron overload on the evolution of Chagas disease produced by three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi in CFW mice,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 235–243, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. L. Pedrosa, J. R. Nicoli, M. E. Silva et al., “The effect of iron nutritional status on Trypanosoma cruzi infection in germfree and conventional mice,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 813–821, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. E. R. P. Lala, M. H. Andó, L. Zalloum et al., “Trypanosoma cruzi: different methods of data analysis to evaluate the genetics-biology relationship,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 173–181, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. M. Santos, T. A. F. Martins, I. S. Caldas et al., “Benznidazole alters the pattern of Cyclophosphamide-induced reactivation in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi-dependent lineage infection,” Acta Tropica, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 134–138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. M. Arantes, M. L. Pedrosa, H. R. Martins et al., “Trypanosoma cruzi: treatment with the iron chelator desferrioxamine reduces parasitemia and mortality in experimentally infected mice,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. A. F. Francisco, P. M. de Abreu Vieira, J. M. Arantes et al., “Trypanosoma cruzi: effect of benznidazole therapy combined with the iron chelator desferrioxamine in infected mice,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 314–319, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. D. Mafra and S. M. F. Cozzolino, “The importance of zinc in human nutritionImportância do zinco na nutrição humana,” Revista de Nutricao, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. H. Haase, E. Mocchegiani, and L. Rink, “Correlation between zinc status and immune function in the elderly,” Biogerontology, vol. 7, no. 5-6, pp. 421–428, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. H. Shankar and A. S. Prasad, “Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 447S–463S, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. P. J. Fraker, L. E. King, T. Laakko, and T. L. Vollmer, “The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, supplement 5, pp. 1452–1456, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  111. W. B. Pratt and D. O. Toft, “Regulation of signaling protein function and trafficking by the hsp90/hsp70-based chaperone machinery,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 228, no. 2, pp. 111–133, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. J. Delves and I. M. Roitt, “The immune system. First of two parts,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 1, pp. 37–49, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. V. Brazão, M. D. V. Filipin, L. C. Caetano, M. P. A. Toldo, L. N. Caetano, and J. C. D. Prado, “Trypanosoma cruzi: the effects of zinc supplementation during experimental infection,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 549–554, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. V. Brazão, L. C. Caetano, M. Del Vecchio Filipin, M. Paula Alonso Toldo, L. N. Caetano, and J. C. do Prado, “Zinc supplementation increases resistance to experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 32–37, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. V. Brazão, L. C. Caetano, M. D. Vecchio Filipin, F. H. Santello, M. P. Alonso Toldo, and J. C. do Prado, “Trypanosoma cruzi: the effects of zinc supplementation in the immune response during the course of experimental disease,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 105–109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. V. Brazão, F. H. Santello, L. C. Caetano, M. Del Vecchio Filipin, M. Paula Alonso Toldo, and J. C. do Prado, “Immunomodulatory effects of zinc and DHEA on the Th-1 immune response in rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi,” Immunobiology, vol. 215, no. 5, pp. 427–434, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. F. Gonçalves-Neto, M. P. Alonso Toldo, C. D. Santos, J. C. do Prado Júnior, C. Fonseca, and S. Albuquerque, “Effect of zinc supplementation in pregnant mice during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 269–274, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. A. T. Diplock, “Trace elements in human health with special reference to selenium,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1313–1322, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. N. W. Solomons and M. Ruz, “Trace element requirements in humans: an update,” Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2-3, pp. 177–195, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. P. Rayman, “The importance of selenium to human health,” Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9225, pp. 233–241, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. J. Nève, “Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases,” Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. M. T. Rivera, A. P. De Souza, A. H. M. Moreno et al., “Progressive Chagas' cardiomyopathy is associated with low selenium levels,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 706–712, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A. P. De Souza, G. M. De Oliveira, J. Nève et al., “Trypanosoma cruzi: host selenium deficiency leads to higher mortality but similar parasitemia in mice,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 193–199, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. R. M. Gomez, M. E. Solana, and O. A. Levander, “Host selenium deficiency increases the severity of chronic inflammatory myopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-inoculated mice,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 541–547, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. A. P. De Souza, G. M. De Oliveira, J. Vanderpas, S. L. De Castro, M. T. Rivera, and T. C. Araújo-Jorge, “Selenium supplementation at low doses contributes to the decrease in heart damage in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection,” Parasitology Research, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. A. P. De Souza, R. Sieberg, H. Li et al., “The role of selenium in intestinal motility and morphology in a murine model of Typanosoma cruzi infection,” Parasitology Research, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1293–1298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. A. P. De Souza, L. A. Jelicks, H. B. Tanowitz et al., “The benefits of using selenium in the treatment of Chagas disease: Prevention of right ventricle chamber dilatation and reversion of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced acute and chronic cardiomyopathy in mice,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 746–751, 2010. View at Google Scholar