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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 367160, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/367160
Research Article

Effect of Seasonality and Ecological Factors on the Prevalence of the Four Malaria Parasite Species in Northern Mali

1Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Bamako, BP 2191, Bamako, Mali
2Département d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Faculté de Médecine, Pharmacie et d’OdontoStomatologie, Université de Bamako, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali
3Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital National du Point G, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali
4Direction Régionale de la Santé de Gao, Ministère de la Santé, BP 232, Gao, Mali
5Faculté des Langues des Arts et des Sciences Humaines, Université de Bamako, BP E 3637, Bamako, Mali
6Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique, BP 1771, Bamako, Mali
7Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA

Received 25 April 2011; Accepted 29 December 2011

Academic Editor: Sasithon Pukrittayakamee

Copyright © 2012 Ousmane A. Koita et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in Ménaka in the Northeastern Mali across 9 sites in different ecological settings: 4 sites have permanent ponds, 4 without ponds, and one (City of Ménaka) has a semipermanent pond. We enrolled 1328 subjects in May 2004 (hot dry season) and 1422 in February 2005 (cold dry season) after the rainy season. Objective. To examine the seasonality of malaria parasite prevalence in this dry northern part of Mali at the edge of the Sahara desert. Results. Slide prevalence was lower in hot dry than cold dry season (4.94 versus 6.85%, 𝑃 = 0 . 0 2 5 ). Gametocyte rate increased to 0.91% in February. Four species were identified. Plasmodium falciparum was most prevalent (74.13 and 63.72%). P. malariae increased from 9.38% to 22.54% in February. In contrast, prevalence of P. vivax was higher (10.31%) without seasonal variation. Smear positivity was associated with splenomegaly ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 7 ). Malaria remained stable in the villages with ponds ( 𝑃 = 0 . 2 2 1 ); in contrast, prevalence varied between the 2 seasons in the villages without ponds ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 4 ). Conclusion. Malaria was mesoendemic; 4 species circulates with a seasonal fluctuation for Plasmodium falciparum.