Journal of Tropical Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors

Table 1

Cysteine proteases of Entamoeba histolytica that degrade host proteins and their implication in virulence.

Tissue or protein PurifiedNameMr (kDa) Comment, localizationReference

ECM components

 CollagenYesEhCP127In vitro, surface [6]
YesEhCP226 In vitro, membrane-associated[7]
YesEhCP11235.5In vitro (zymogram), surface[8]
YesEhCP530 In vitro (zymogram), and it is essential ex vivo for the cleavage of the collagen network, surface[9, 10]
Yes56 In vitro, secreted[11]
No72In vitro (zymogram), crude extracts and EDG[12]
Yes27–29In vitro [13]
 LamininYesEhCP426 In vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
Yes56 In vitro, secreted[11]
Yes27–29In vitro [13]
 FibronectinYesEhCP11235.5In vitro (zymogram), surface[8]
Yes56 In vitro, secreted[11]
Yes27–29In vitro [13]
 GelatinNo110, 68, 56, and 22Induced by collagen, conditioned medium[15]

Immunoglobulins

 IgAYesEhCP426In vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
Yes70In vitro [16]
 IgGYesEhCP530In vitro, surface[9]
YesEhCP426In vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
YesEhCP127In vitro, surface[17]
Yes56 In vitro, secreted[11]

Complement

 C3YesEhCP426In vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
YesEhCP127In vitro, surface[17]
Yes56 In vitro [18]
 C3a and C5aYes56 In vitro [19]

Cytokines

 proIL-18YesEhCP426In vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
YesEhCP530In vitro, surface[20]
YesEhCP127In vitro, surface[17]
 proIL-1βYesEhCP127In vitro, surface[21, 22]
EhCP226In vitro, membrane-associated[21, 22]

Iron-containing proteins

 HemoglobinYesEhCP11235.5In vitro (zymogram), surface[8]
YesEhCP530In vitro (zymogram), surface[9]
Yes41, 27In vitro, intracellular[23]
No32, 40In vitro, total extract[24]
Yes22In vitro [25]
Yes16In vitro [26]
No116, 82, 28, and 21Human, porcine, and bovine Hb in vitro (zymogram)[27]
 TransferrinNo130, 43, 20, and 6 Total extract
in vitro (zymogram)
[28]
No130, 70, 50, 35, and 30 Conditioned medium
in vitro (zymogram)
[28]
 LactoferrinNo250, 100, 40, and 22 Total extract
in vitro (zymogram)
[29]
 FerritinNo100, 75, and 50 Total extract
in vitro (zymogram)
[30]

Other proteins or tissues

 MucinYesEhCP530In vitro (zymogram), although ex vivo is not needed to cross the mucus, surface[9, 31]
 ProteoglycanYesEhCP226In vitro, membrane-associated[7]
 VillinYesEhCP127In vitro, surface[14]
YesEhCP426Iin vitro, secreted and nuclear[14]
 FibrinogenYesEhCP530In vitro (zymogram), surface[9]
 BSAYesEhCP530In vitro (zymogram), surface[9]

EDG: electron-dense granules.