Journal of Tropical Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors

Table 3

Enzymes from free-living amoebaea that degrade host proteins and their implication in virulence.

PathogenTissue or protein Purified Name Mr (kDa) Catalytic type Localization Reference

Acanthamoeba spp.ElastinNo70–130SPSecreted[41]
Collagen, fibronectin, and lamininYes12 SPSecreted[42]
Corneal stroma (ex vivo), Collagen I and IVYes MIP-133133 SPSecreted[43]

Acanthamoeba castellanii Corneal stroma (ex vivo), CollagenYesMIP-133133 SPSecreted[44]
Collagen I and III
Elastin
No130 SPSecreted[45]
Collagen I and IIINo150 MMPSecreted[45]
Collagen I and IV
Fibronectin, hemoglobin, albumin, IgA, and IgG
Yes 33SPSecreted[46]
Gelatin No178, 144, 123, 110, 78, 75, 72, 34, 30SPCrude extracts[47]
GelatinNo 188, 157, 53, 34SPConditioned medium[47]

Acanthamoeba polyphaga GelatinNo144, 105, 78, 72, 45, 40, 34SPCrude extracts[47]
GelatinNo72, 62, 50, 34SPConditioned medium[47]

Acanthamoeba healyi Collagen I and IV
Fibronectin, hemoglobin, albumin, IgA, and IgG
Yes33 SPSecreted[46]

Acanthamoeba lugdunensis Collagen I and IV
Fibronectin, hemoglobin, albumin, IgA, and IgG
Yes33 SPSecreted[46]

Naegleria fowleri Collagen I and, elastinYes30 CPSecreted and cytoplasmic[48]
Bovine mucinNo37 CPCrude extracts[49]
GelatinNo130, 100, 73, 62CPCrude extracts[50]
GelatinNo310, 178, 164, 147CPConditioned medium[50]

Balamuthia mandrillaris Collagen I and III, elastin, and plasminogenNo40–50 MMPCrude extracts[51]
Collagen I and III, elastin, and plasminogenNo73
40–50
MMPConditioned medium[51]

aAll results have been performed in in vitro assays. MIP: mannose induced protease; SP: serine protease; CP: cysteine protease; MMP: matrix metalloprotease.