Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 405875, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/405875
Research Article

Cryptosporidiosis in Iranian Farm Workers and Their Household Members: A Hypothesis about Possible Zoonotic Transmission

1Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Mollasadra Street, Vanak Square, Tehran 14359151371, Iran
2Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359151371, Iran
3Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359151371, Iran

Received 27 December 2013; Accepted 18 February 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editor: Luis E. Cuevas

Copyright © 2014 Morteza Izadi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Chalmers and A. P. Davies, “Minireview: clinical cryptosporidiosis,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 138–146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Nichols, “Epidemiology,” in Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis, R. Fayer and L. Xiao, Eds., pp. 79–118, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. C. Reese, W. L. Current, J. V. Ernst, and W. S. Bailey, “Cryptosporidiosis of man and calf: a case report and results of experimental infections in mice and rats,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 226–229, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. J. O'Donoghue, “Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in man and animals,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 139–195, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Xiao and R. P. Herd, “Infection patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 257–262, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. E. Smith, S. A. Stenzel, J. B. Bender et al., “Outbreaks of enteric infections caused by multiple pathogens associated with calves at a farm day camp,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1098–1104, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. M. Kiang, J. M. Scheftel, F. T. Leano et al., “Recurrent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with calves among students at an educational farm programme, Minnesota, 2003,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 878–886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. P. Casemore, M. Armstrong, and R. L. Sands, “Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1337–1341, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Xiao, L. Escalante, C. Yang et al., “Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small subunit rRNA gene lucus,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1578–1583, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Azami, D. D. Moghaddam, R. Salehi, and M. Salehi, “The identification of Cryptosporidium species in Isfahan, Iran by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene,” Molecular Biology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 851–856, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Pirestani, J. Sadraei, A. Dalimi Asl, M. Zavvar, and H. Vaeznia, “Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from human and bovine using 18s rRNA gene in Shahriar county of Tehran, Iran,” Parasitology Research, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 467–472, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. M. Ghalehbin, M. Arzanlou, E. Fallah, A. H. Kazemi, and M. Asgharzadeh, “Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium sp. in the cattle stool samples in Ardabil city, Northwestern Iran,” Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 246–250, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Keshavarz, A. Haghighi, A. Athari, B. Kazemi, A. Abadi, and E. N. Mojarad, “Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province, Iran,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 160, no. 3-4, pp. 316–318, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Hassanpour, “Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in calves and humans to be in contact them in tabriz area in Iran,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, article 126, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. P. Sturdee, A. T. Bodley-Tickell, A. Archer, and R. M. Chalmers, “Long-term study of Cryptosporidium prevalence on a lowland farm in the United Kingdom,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 97–113, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. E. Olson, R. M. O'Handley, B. J. Ralston, T. A. McAllister, and R. C. A. Thompson, “Update on Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cattle,” Trends in Parasitology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 185–191, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Kváč, M. Kouba, and J. Vítovec, “Age-related and housing-dependence of Cryptosporidium infection of calves from dairy and beef herds in South Bohemia, Czech Republic,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 137, no. 3-4, pp. 202–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. B. Langkjær, H. Vigre, H. L. Enemark, and C. Maddox-Hyttel, “Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark,” Parasitology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 339–350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. E. C. Huetink, J. W. B. Van der Giessen, J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen, and H. W. Ploeger, “Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis on a dairy farm,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 102, no. 1-2, pp. 53–67, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. A. Trotz-Williams, S. Wayne Martin, K. E. Leslie, T. Duffield, D. V. Nydam, and A. S. Peregrine, “Calf-level risk factors for neonatal diarrhea and shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum in Ontario dairy calves,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 82, no. 1-2, pp. 12–28, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Feng, Y. Ortega, G. He et al., “Wide geographic distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 144, no. 1-2, pp. 1–9, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Geurden, D. Berkvens, C. Martens, S. Casaert, J. Vercruysse, and E. Claerebout, “Molecular epidemiology with subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium in calves in Belgium,” Parasitology, vol. 134, no. 14, pp. 1981–1987, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. C. Feltus, C. W. Giddings, M. L. Khaitsa, and J. M. McEvoy, “High prevalence of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in calves compared to mature cows in beef cow-calf operations,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 151, no. 2–4, pp. 191–195, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. P. Thompson, J. S. G. Dooley, J. Kenny et al., “Genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in neonatal calves in Northern Ireland,” Parasitology Research, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 619–624, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Santín, J. M. Trout, and R. Fayer, “A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 15–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. A. Halim, J. Plutzer, M. A. Bakheit, and P. Karanis, “First report of Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype in Malaysian cattle,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 152, no. 3-4, pp. 325–329, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. J. Brook, C. Anthony Hart, N. P. French, and R. M. Christley, “Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium subtypes in cattle in England,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 378–382, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Xiao, “Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 80–89, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. M. Chalmers, K. Elwin, A. L. Thomas, E. C. Guy, and B. Mason, “Long-term Cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2000 to 2003,” Euro Surveillance, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1–9, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Zintl, A. F. Proctor, C. Read et al., “The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in human faecal samples in Ireland,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 270–277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. R. Meamar, K. Guyot, G. Certad et al., “Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and animals in Iran,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1033–1035, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. A. Al-Brikan, H. S. Salem, N. Beeching, and N. Hilal, “Multilocus genetic analysis of Cryptosporidium isolates from Saudi Arabia,” Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 645–658, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. M. Sulaiman, P. R. Hira, L. Zhou et al., “Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 2805–2809, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. D. Morse, R. A. B. Nichols, A. M. Grimason, B. M. Campbell, K. C. Tembo, and H. V. Smith, “Incidence of cryptosporidiosis species in paediatric patients in Malawi,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 135, no. 8, pp. 1307–1315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. J. U. D. S. Araújo, H. Y. Kanamura, M. E. De Almeida, A. H. D. S. Gomes, T. H. L. Pinto, and A. J. Da Silva, “Genotypic identification of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from HIV-infected patients and immunocompetent children of São Paulo, Brazil,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 139–143, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. R. Jex, A. Pangasa, B. E. Campbell et al., “Classification of Cryptosporidium species from patients with sporadic cryptosporidiosis by use of sequence-based multilocus analysis following mutation scanning,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2252–2262, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Siwila, I. G. K. Phiri, J. Vercruysse et al., “Asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis in Zambian dairy farm workers and their household members,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 733–734, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. R. Wielinga, A. de Vries, T. H. van der Goot et al., “Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and cattle in The Netherlands,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 809–817, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Robertson, M. I. Sinclair, A. B. Forbes et al., “Case-control studies of sporadic crytosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 419–431, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. L. Roy, S. M. DeLong, S. A. Stenzel et al., “Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 2944–2951, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. R. Hunter, S. Hughes, S. Woodhouse et al., “Sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1241–1249, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Robertson, B. Gjerde, T. Forberg, G. Haugejorden, and C. Kielland, “A small outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis associated with calves at a dairy farm in Norway,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 810–813, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Preiser, L. Preiser, and L. Madeo, “An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary science students who work with calves,” Journal of American College Health, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 213–215, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. M. Kiang, J. M. Scheftel, F. T. Leano et al., “Recurrent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with calves among students at an educational farm programme, Minnesota, 2003,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 878–886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. Ondriska, I. Vrabcová, S. Brinďáková et al., “The first reported cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in Slovak Republic,” Folia Microbiologica, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 69–73, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. J. Yakoob, Z. Abbas, M. A. Beg et al., “Prevalences of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum infection in adults presenting with chronic diarrhoea,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 505–510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Jafari, A. H. Maghsood, and M. Fallah, “Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection among livestock and humans in contact with livestock in hamadan district, Iran, 2012,” Journal of Research in Health Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 86–89, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Izadi, N. Jonaidi-Jafari, A. Saburi, H. Eyni, M. R. Rezaiemanesh, and R. Ranjbar, “Prevalence, molecular characteristics and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis among Iranian immunocompromised patients,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 836–842, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  49. F. F. Gil, M. J. Barros, N. A. Macedo et al., “Prevalence of intestinal parasitism and associated symptomatology among hemodialysis patients,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2013. View at Google Scholar