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Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 563478, 9 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Medical Parasitology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom, Menoufia 23513, Egypt
3Department of Community Medicine, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom, Menoufia 23513, Egypt
4Parasitology Department, Rabigh Medical College, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Received 18 June 2015; Revised 3 September 2015; Accepted 8 September 2015

Academic Editor: Carlos E. P. Corbett

Copyright © 2015 Yousry A. Hawash et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.