Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 6573672, 7 pages
Research Article

Pattern, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcome of Meningitis among HIV-Infected Adults Admitted in a Tertiary Hospital in North Western Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

1Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania
2Department of Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Mwanza, Tanzania
3Department of Medicine, Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
4Center for Global Health, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
5Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Mwanza, Tanzania

Received 4 April 2016; Accepted 7 August 2016

Academic Editor: Jean P. Gonzalez

Copyright © 2016 Matobogolo M. Boaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Lumbar puncture was performed to all patients; cerebrospinal fluid samples were sent for analysis. Results. Among 60 HIV-infected adults clinically diagnosed to have meningitis, 55 had CSF profiles consistent with meningitis. Of these, 14 (25.5%) had a laboratory-confirmed etiology while 41 (74.5%) had no isolate identified. Cryptococcus neoformans was the commonest cause of meningitis occurring in 11 (18.3%) of patients followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.7%). The in-hospital mortality was 20/55 (36.4%). Independent predictors of mortality were low baseline CD4 count and turbid CSF appearance. Conclusion. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent laboratory-confirmed etiological agent among adult HIV-infected patients with suspected meningitis admitted to medical wards in Western Tanzania. Mortality rate in this population remains unacceptably high. Improving diagnostic capacity and early treatment may help to decrease the mortality rate.