Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in India: A Meta-Analysis of Observational StudiesRead the full article
Journal of Thyroid Research publishes articles on the molecular and cellular biology, immunology, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of thyroid diseases, with a specific focus on thyroid cancer.
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Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network for the Investigation of Thyroid Cytological Lesions
Objective. This study investigates the potential of an artificial intelligence (AI) methodology, the radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), in the evaluation of thyroid lesions. Study Design. The study was performed on 447 patients who had both cytological and histological evaluation in agreement. Cytological specimens were prepared using liquid-based cytology, and the histological result was based on subsequent surgical samples. Each specimen was digitized; on these images, nuclear morphology features were measured by the use of an image analysis system. The extracted measurements (41,324 nuclei) were separated into two sets: the training set that was used to create the RBF ANN and the test set that was used to evaluate the RBF performance. The system aimed to predict the histological status as benign or malignant. Results. The RBF ANN obtained in the training set has sensitivity 82.5%, specificity 94.6%, and overall accuracy 90.3%, while in the test set, these indices were 81.4%, 90.0%, and 86.9%, respectively. Algorithm was used to classify patients on the basis of the RBF ANN, the overall sensitivity was 95.0%, the specificity was 95.5%, and no statistically significant difference was observed. Conclusion. AI techniques and especially ANNs, only in the recent years, have been studied extensively. The proposed approach is promising to avoid misdiagnoses and assists the everyday practice of the cytopathology. The major drawback in this approach is the automation of a procedure to accurately detect and measure cell nuclei from the digitized images.
Lack of Association between Poor Glycemic Control in T2DM and Subclinical Hypothyroidism
Background. Hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent and multifactorial disorder and has been implicated in the causation of dyslipidemia, dermatological diseases, atherosclerosis, and myocardial dysfunction, as well as endothelial dysfunction. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and type 2 diabetes mellitus is not well established. In the present study, we attempt to find out the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with glycemic control. Materials and Methods. This was an observational study in which 205 consecutive patients of T2DM visiting the outpatient department of medicine were recruited. Serum TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and lipid profile, as well as HbA1c assays, were done in the study participants, and they were categorized into three groups by HbA1c: <7%, 7–9%, and >9%. Results. There is a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in type 2 DM patients. Mean HbA1c in diabetics without SCH was 7.89%, whereas it was 8.33% in diabetics with SCH. This difference was statistically not significant. TSH was not found to be significantly associated with HbA1c. Conclusion. High prevalence of SCH in T2DM patients suggests that there is a need for regular follow-up to check the progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism. High serum TSH is not a predictor of poor glycemic control.
Tumor Volume Kinetic Analyses Might Explain Excellent Prognoses in Young Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Introduction. Young patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) generally have excellent prognoses despite their often-advanced disease status. The reasons for this excellent prognosis are poorly understood. Objective. To investigate the natural history of PTC in young patients, we compared the observed tumor volume-doubling rate (TV-DR) with the hypothetical tumor volume-doubling rate (hTV-DR) before presentation in young PTC patients. DR is an inverse of the doubling time and indicates the number of doublings that occur in a unit of time. A negative value indicates the number of times the volume is reduced by half per unit time. Methods. We enrolled 20 patients with the following characteristics: age ≤19 years, diagnosed with PTC according to the cytology results between 2013 and 2018 and followed-up with periodical ultrasound examinations for ≥3 months before surgery for various reasons. Seventeen patients later underwent surgery confirming the diagnosis. We calculated TV-DRs using serial measurements of tumor diameters after presentation and hTV-DRs using tumor diameters and patients’ age at presentation, assuming that a single cancer cell was present at the patient’s birth and that the tumor grew at a constant rate. These values indicate the lowest growth rates necessary for a single cancer cell to achieve the full tumor size at presentation. Results. Thirteen patients had positive TV-DRs (/year) ranging from 0.09 to 1.89, indicating tumor growth, and the remaining seven patients had negative values (−0.08 to −1.21), indicating regression. The median TV-DR was 0.29. The hTV-DRs (1.48–2.66, median 1.71) were significantly larger than the TV-DRs (), indicating much faster growth before presentation. Conclusions. These data suggest that deceleration of tumor growth had already occurred at presentation in the majority of the cases. This might explain why disease-specific survival is excellent despite frequent findings of advanced disease in young patients with PTC.
Possible Effects of Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water on Thyroid Health
Background. Perchlorate is an anion that occurs as a contaminant in groundwater. It originates from the improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate, a component of rocket fuel. The objective of this study was to explore whether the exposure to perchlorate in drinking water had an impact on the thyroid function of the population residing near an ammonium perchlorate plant in Kerala. Methodology. Using an ecological study design, we compared the serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies among a representative sample of 289 study subjects from the area surrounding the ammonium perchlorate enrichment plant to 281 study subjects in a control area. Results. The perchlorate concentration in the groundwater varied from 1600 ppb to 57,000 ppb in the 10 samples from the contaminated area and was below 24 ppb in all locations in the control area. No significant differences were found in the mean serum TSH concentration and mean T4 levels between the subjects from the contaminated area and the control area. On regression analysis, perchlorate contamination was not found to be a significant predictor of TSH. Conclusion. This study did not find any significant association between perchlorate in drinking water and changes in thyroid hormone levels. Our findings indicate the need for further investigation of this hypothesis using urinary perchlorate as a measure of individual exposure.
Diagnosis and Management of Graves’ Disease in Thailand: A Survey of Current Practice
Background. The data on clinical practice patterns in the evaluation and management of Graves’ disease (GD) are limited in Asia. The aims of this survey were to report the current practices in the management of GD in Thailand and to examine any international differences in the management of GD. Methods. Members of the Endocrine Society of Thailand who were board certified in endocrinology (N = 392) were invited to participate in an electronic survey on the management of GD using the same index case and questionnaire as in previous North American and European surveys. Results. One hundred and twenty responses (30.6%) from members were included. TSH receptor antibody measurement (29.2%), thyroid ultrasound (6.7%), and isotopic studies (5.9%) were used less frequently to confirm the etiology compared with those in North American and European surveys. Treatment with an antithyroid drug (ATD) was the preferred first choice of therapy (90.8%). Methimazole at 10–15 mg/day with a beta-blocker was the initial treatment of choice. The preferred ATD in pregnancy was propylthiouracil in the first trimester and methimazole in the second and third trimesters, which was similar to the North American and European surveys. Conclusion. Ultrasound and isotopic studies will be requested only by a small proportion of Thai endocrinologists. Higher physician preference for ATD is similar to Europe, Latin America, and other Asian countries. Geographical differences in the use of ATD, radioactive iodine, and thyroidectomy exist.
Distribution and Prognostic Significance of Estrogen Receptor α (ERα), Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ), and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER-2) in Thyroid Carcinoma
Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of follicular origin and the secondary aim was to correlate the expression with various clinicopathologic prognostic factors. Methods. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed on archival paraffin-embedded tissue sections (1991–2016). ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 expressions were correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic factors, disease recurrence, and overall survival (OS). Results. A total of 264 TC patients were included in the study. Incidences of ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 were 8.1 vs 16.3 vs 13.9% , 26.6 vs 11.5 vs 36.1% , and 12.9 vs 2.9 vs 0% in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC), respectively. Overall ERα had significant correlation with distant metastases (0.038) and in case of PDTC with multicentricity . ERβ had significant correlation with lymph node metastases in FTC. HER-2 correlated with tumor size only on univariate analysis. OS did not correlate with expression of any receptor. Conclusion. ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 have differential expression and prognostic implications in different TC subtypes.