Lymph Node Metastasis and Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Cyprus: Suspicious Subcentimeter Nodules Should Undergo FNA When Multifocality is SuspectedRead the full article
Journal of Thyroid Research publishes articles on the molecular and cellular biology, immunology, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of thyroid diseases, with a specific focus on thyroid cancer.
Journal of Thyroid Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Microscopic Positive Tumor Margin Increases Risk for Disease Persistence but Not Recurrence in Patients with Stage T1-T2 Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has an overall excellent prognosis. Patients who develop recurrent disease have a more unfavorable disease course than those with no recurrence. Higher recurrence rates are seen with incomplete surgical resection and gross positive margins. It is unclear whether microscopic positive margin affects disease recurrence rates as much as grossly positive margin. Aim of the Study. To assess whether microscopic positive margin is an independent predictor of disease recurrence in patients with overall low-risk DTC. Patients and Methods. We conducted a retrospective single-center institutional review of 1,583 consecutive patients’ charts from 1995–2013 using the Canadian Thyroid Cancer Consortium Registry. We included adult patients with nonmetastasizing T1 and T2 DTC with a minimum of three years follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study factors that may influence the risk of persistent/recurrent disease. Strict definitions of persistent versus recurrent disease were applied. Results. 963 patients (152 men and 811 women) were included in the study with a mean age of 46 years. Microscopic positive margins were present in 12% of the specimens and were associated with an increased rate of persistent disease (8% versus 2% in the controls) but not with an increased risk of recurrent disease (1% in both groups). T2 tumors had a significantly higher incidence of positive margins than T1 tumors (48% versus 36%) and significantly higher nodal staging. Conclusions. Microscopic positive margin in the histopathology report in patients with low-risk DTC was associated with a higher rate of persistent disease but did not increase the risk of disease recurrence. A close follow-up of biomarkers and occult residual cancerous lesions is needed, especially in the first year. Further studies are needed to determine whether additional therapeutic measures to prevent recurrence are indicated in T1 and T2 DTC with positive microscopic surgical margins.
Superior Approach of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Review of the Literature
The identification and dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is essential to guarantee its anatomical and functional integrity. The superior approach of the recurrent nerve is a reliable surgical alternative. Various indications are recognized with a reliable landmark. This is the entry point into the larynx under the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage. The limits of this technique, namely, the extralaryngeal divisions and the hemorrhages encountered at the point of entry of the larynx are a source of morbidity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. A careful dissection, respect for the surgical steps, and the surgeon's experience are guarantees of a good result. We wanted through a review of the literature and our experience in the superior approach to discuss surgical indications, to identify landmarks at the point of entry of the larynx, to determine the limits of this approach, and to take precautions to mitigate the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
Thyroidectomy in a Surgical Volunteerism Mission: Analysis of 464 Consecutive Cases
Although surgical volunteer missions (SVMs) have become a popular approach for reducing the burden of surgical disease worldwide, the outcomes of specific procedures in the context of a mission are underreported. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes and efficiency of thyroid surgery within a surgical mission. This was a retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients who underwent thyroid surgery within a SVM from 2006 to 2019. Postoperative complication rate was the safety endpoint, whereas length of hospital stay (LOS) was the efficiency endpoint. Serious complications were defined as Clavien–Dindo class 3–5 complications. Expected safety and efficiency outcomes were calculated using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) surgical risk calculator and compared to their observed counterparts. A total of 464 thyroidectomies were performed during the study period. Mean age of the patients was 40.3 ± 10.8 years, and male-to-female ratio was 72 : 392. Expected overall () and serious complication rates () were not significantly different from their observed counterparts. Expected LOS was found to be significantly shorter as compared to its observed counterpart (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 1.0 days; ). This study found thyroid surgery performed within a surgical mission to be safe. NSQIP surgical risk calculator underestimates the LOS following thyroidectomy in surgical missions.
A Hospital-Based Study of Iodine Nutrition Status of Breastfeeding Mothers in Bangladesh
Adequacy of iodine nutrition status in breastfeeding mothers is vital in preventing iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in neonates and children. The aim of the study was to assess urinary iodine status in breastfeeding mothers attending Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) hospital in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study carried out from January 2014 to January 2015, urinary iodine (UI; μgm/L) level of 266 mothers (age 26.6 ± 4.7 years (mean ± SD), exclusively breastfeeding: 132 and nonexclusively breastfeeding: 134), recruited on consecutive basis from BSMMU outdoor and indoor, were measured in spot urine following the wet digestion method. Median UI in the participants was 298.6 (interquartile range, IQR 206.6–454.9) μgm/L and only 6.4% lactating mother had low UI (i.e. <100 μgm/L). There was no difference of median UI in relation to exclusive or nonexclusive breast feeding, presence of goiter, parity, and age of breastfed baby (). But median UI was higher in older subjects (≥30 years vs. <30 years: 364.4 (228.4–529.9) vs. 283.7 (205.4–434.0); median (IQR) )), with good socioeconomic condition (good vs. average or less: 328.2 (243.8–510.0) vs. 274.4 (200.0–433.3); median (IQR); ), and in those who are aware regarding the importance of iodine (aware vs. unaware: 316.6 (225.2–506.3) vs. 270.1 (196.0–407.2); median (IQR); ). The proportion of participants with UI < 100 μgm/L was similar in all the groups. Logistic regressions to predict deficient UI status revealed none of the variables to be an independent predictor. This study indicates that deficient iodine nutrition status in Bangladeshi breastfeeding mothers is not frequent at present.
Challenges in Interpreting Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Results in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Dysfunction
The pituitary hormone, thyrotropin (TSH), is regarded as the primary biomarker for evaluating thyroid function and is useful in guiding treatment with levothyroxine for patients with hypothyroidism. The amplified response of TSH to slight changes in thyroid hormone levels provides a large and easily measured signal in the routine care setting. Laboratories provide reference ranges with upper and lower cutoffs for TSH to define normal thyroid function. The upper limit of the range, used to diagnose subclinical (mild) hypothyroidism, is itself a matter for debate, with authoritative guidelines recommending treatment to within the lower half of the range. Concomitant diseases, medications, supplements, age, gender, ethnicity, iodine status, time of day, time of year, autoantibodies, heterophilic antibodies, smoking, and other factors influence the level of TSH, or the performance of current TSH assays. The long-term prognostic implications of small deviations of TSH from the reference range are unclear. Correction of TSH to within the reference range does not always bring thyroid and other biomarkers into range and will not always resolve the patient’s symptoms. Overt hypothyroidism requires intervention with levothyroxine. It remains important that physicians managing a patient with symptoms suggestive of thyroid disease consider all of the patient’s relevant disease, lifestyle, and other factors before intervening on the basis of a marginally raised TSH level alone. Finally, these limitations of TSH testing mitigate against screening the population for the undoubtedly substantial prevalence of undiagnosed thyroid disease, until appropriately designed randomised trials have quantified the benefits and harms from this approach.
Study of Vitamin D Level and Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism in Hypothyroid Egyptian Patients
Purpose. The current study aimed at assessing vitamin D level and vitamin D receptor polymorphism in hypothyroid Egyptian patients and its effect on hypothyroidism and thyroid morphology, also to find a causal relation between vitamin D and hypothyroidism. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 35 hypothyroid patients and 35 matched unrelated healthy controls. Total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and thyroid antibodies were measured using a human ELISA kit. Genotyping was performed by using real-time PCR. HOMA-IR was also calculated (fasting insulin in mIU/L × fasting glucose in mg/dL/405). All subjects were assessed for thyroid morphology by thyroid ultrasonography. Results. Vitamin D level was lower in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects. Vitamin D was also inversely related to TSH, HOMA-IR, and levels of anti-TG and anti-TPO. VDR polymorphism (Fok1 and Apa1) had no relation to TSH or vitamin D levels in both patients and control groups. Low vitamin D levels were associated with increased thyroid vascularity and nodularity; furthermore, vitamin D was inversely proportional to thyroid gland volume. Correlation of HOMA-IR with the levels of both anti-TG and anti-TPO in the 70 subjects proved that HOMA-IR was positively correlated to both antibodies. Conclusion. This study confirmed the association of vitamin D deficiency with hypothyroidism, thyroid autoimmunity, increased volume, nodularity, and vascularity of thyroid gland in hypothyroid patients as well as increased HOMA-IR. It proved the association between HOMA-IR and thyroid autoimmunity. The study proved no association between VDR polymorphisms (Fok1 and Apa1) with either vitamin D levels or TSH levels.