Occult Central Lymph Node Metastasis in cN0 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients Undergoing TOETVA ProcedureRead the full article
Journal of Thyroid Research publishes articles on the molecular and cellular biology, immunology, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of thyroid diseases, with a specific focus on thyroid cancer.
Journal of Thyroid Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Hashimoto Thyroiditis beyond Cytology: A Correlation between Cytological, Hormonal, Serological, and Radiological Findings
Introduction. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound is the modality for detection, while fine needle aspiration is the gold standard method for diagnosis. Serologic markers, such as antithyroidal peroxidase antibody (TPO) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TG), are usually elevated. Aim. The main objective is to appraise the incidence of neoplasms on a background of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Our second objective is to recognize the different sonographic appearances of Hashimoto thyroiditis, to focus on its nodular and focal patterns, and to measure the sensitivity of the ACR TIRAD system (2017) when interpreted on patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Methods. A single-center retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 137 cases diagnosed cytologically as Hashimoto thyroiditis from January 2013–December 2019. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS (26th edition), and ultrasounds were reviewed by a single board-certified radiologist. The ACR thyroid imaging and Data System 2017 (ACR TI-RADs 2017) and the Bethesda System for reporting thyroid cytology 2017 (BSRTC 2017) were used for reporting ultrasound and cytology, respectively. Results. The mean age was 44.66 years and the female : male was 9 : 1. Serologically, anti-Tg was high in 22 cases (38%), while anti-TPO was positive in all of the 60 cases studied. Histologically, 11 cases were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (8%) and a single case with follicular adenoma (0.7%). Ultrasonographically, 50% of the cases showed diffuse pattern, in which 13% of them showed micronodules. 32.2% were macronodular, and 17.7% were a focal nodular pattern. 45 nodules were interpreted with the ACR TIRAD system (2017), in which 22.2% were TR2, 26.6% were TR3, 17.7% were TR4, and 33.3% were TR5. Conclusion. Hashimoto thyroiditis is a risk factor for developing thyroid neoplasms, which necessitate a proper assessment of the cytological material studied and a correlation with the clinical and radiological features. Recognizing the different types of Hashimoto thyroiditis and its variable appearances is significantly important in performing and interpreting thyroid ultrasound imaging. Microcalcification is the most sensitive parameter to discriminate between PTC and nodular type of Hashimoto thyroiditis. The TIRAD system (2017) is a useful tool for risk stratification; however, it might create unnecessary FNA studies in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis because of its variable appearances on ultrasound. A modified TIRAD system for patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis is important to alleviate this confusion. Finally, anti-TPO is a sensitive marker for detecting Hashimoto thyroiditis, which could be used for future referencing of newly diagnosed cases.
Quality of Life and Surgical Outcome of Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach (TOETVA) versus Open Thyroid Surgery: Experience from a Single Center in Vietnam
Background. It has been widely assumed that TOETVA has demonstrated a new technique and a promising approach as it is both minimally invasive and optimally cosmetic. The objective of this study was to assess the surgical outcome, aesthetic satisfaction, and postoperative quality of life of TOETVA in comparison with open thyroid surgery. Patients and Methods. The study was designed as a prospective study, in which 121 patients from a single center in Vietnam underwent thyroid surgery, and the study was divided into two groups: 60 patients in the TOETVA group and 61 patients in the open surgery group. The patients have been followed up including surgical outcomes, cosmetic satisfaction, and quality of life. These criteria were assessed at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the surgery using SF-36 and thyroid surgery-specific questionnaire. Results. Patients in the TOETVA group are significantly younger than patients in the open surgery group (35.8 + 10.3 vs 46.9 + 11.5, ). The mean operating time was longer in the TOETVA group (102.9 ± 26.1 mins) than that in the open surgery group (66.8 ± 23.8 mins) with . Cosmetic outcomes and overall satisfaction were significantly greater in the TOETVA group . The SF-36 QOL scores of the patients in the TOETVA group were generally higher than the open surgery group. Conclusions. TOETVA has been widely used with a low complication rate, cosmetic appeal, and surgical efficacy. Postoperative quality of life, cosmetic outcomes, and overall satisfaction were significantly superior to the open surgery group.
Bone Turnover in Relation to Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in Hypothyroid Patients on Thyroid Hormone Substitution Therapy
Background. Bone turnover markers (BTMs) have emerged as a useful tool for monitoring bone remodeling activity in the skeleton, and their serum levels correlate with bone loss rates in osteoporotic and normal individuals. Whether the same holds for other metabolic bone diseases is still subject to discussion. Methods. We analyzed the relation between levels of BTMs and TSH in 79 females on thyroid hormone substitution therapy for hypothyroidism. Based on the reference range for TSH (0.2–4.0 mU/L) in our lab, we assessed BTMs in five different groups of patients based on the following criteria: (1) hypothyroidism (TSH >4.0); (2) TSH in the high normal range (1.0–4.0); (3) TSH in the low normal range (0.2–1.0); (4) TSH below the normal range (0.01–0.2); (5) TSH undetectable (<0.01). We studied the relationship between TSH and four different bone markers: procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (PINP), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). In a subgroup of patients, bone mineral density was assessed by a DXA scan. Results. PINP emerged as the most sensitive and dynamic BTM for assessment of bone turnover in this patient group, achieving significant rho values on nonparametric correlation analysis for both TSH (rho −0.47; ) and FT4 (rho 0.27; ). CTX and OC also revealed significant correlations to TSH, albeit with lower rho values (−0.37 and −0.24, respectively). Categorical analysis showed that bone turnover increased significantly, albeit with pronounced interindividual variability for TSH values below the lower limit of normal (0.2 mU/l), with the most severe affected being women exhibiting suppression of TSH. Further analysis of loss rates by DXA in a limited subgroup of patients showed that this was accompanied by accelerated bone loss. Conclusion. PINP is the most sensitive marker of bone turnover in thyroid disorders. TSH values below the lower limit of normal are associated with increased bone turnover and accelerated bone loss, however, with pronounced interindividual variations. Assessment of PINP may be a valuable tool in cases where there is concern about possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone substitution therapy on bone.
Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration of Deep Thyroid Nodule: Is There a Correlation between the Nodule’s Depth and Nondiagnostic Results?
Objective. To evaluate whether thyroid nodule depth correlates with nondiagnostic results in ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytopathology. Background. Many factors correlate with nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results, including older age, macrocalcification, small-sized nodules, aspirin medication, and cystic portion in more than 50% of the thyroid nodules. However, there are few studies which have examined whether there is a relationship between the depth of nodules and the percentage of nondiagnostic results in cytology (Bethesda category I). We conducted this study in order to investigate if such a correlation exists. Materials and Methods. FNAC was performed on 283 thyroid nodules between January 2019 and December 2020. Cytological analyses of the nodules were reviewed and sorted as nondiagnostic and diagnostic according to the Bethesda score. Patient files and ultra sound (US) scans were reviewed for clinical information (such as age, sex, and ethnic group) and sonographic features of nodules (such as depth, size, cystic portion, type of calcification, and echogenicity) and were compared between the nondiagnostic and diagnostic nodule results. The depth of a nodule was calculated as the shortest distance from the skin to the most superficial border of the nodule in the axial plane, using our medical center’s computer program, which allows reviewing all saved shots of the US scan. Results. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not significantly different between the nondiagnostic group and the diagnostic group (). Nodule diameter, cystic portion, calcification, and echogenicity were also not associated with the frequency of nondiagnostic results. The depth of nodules ≥9 mm was correlated with nondiagnostic US-guided FNA cytological results (OR = 2.55, ). Conclusions. Deep thyroid nodules correlated with nondiagnostic US-guided FNA cytological results. Further studies are needed for optimizing the approach to deep thyroid nodules in order to improve the efficacy of FNA in deep thyroid nodules.
Iodine Deficiency in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Study
Objective. Worldwide, 21 countries have insufficient iodine in their diets. Persistent iodine deficiency may result in hypothyroidism. The aim of this study is to determine whether iodine measurements can be used to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in patients with (subclinical) hypothyroidism compared to a control group. Design. A prospective cohort pilot study was performed at the Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of Isala, a large teaching hospital in Zwolle, the Netherlands. Patients. This study consisted of two groups of 24 adult patients each: a group of consecutive patients presenting with overt or subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group of euthyroid patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Measurements. All patients collected 24-hour urine. Iodine status was determined using urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine creatinine ratio (I : Cr). Iodine deficiency was defined as an iodine concentration <100 µg/L for UIC, iodine level <125 µg for UIE, and <0.13 µmol/mmol for I : Cr. Results. According to UIE and UIC measurements, 54.2% of hypothyroid patients were iodine-deficient compared to 41.7–45.8% in the control group. According to the I : Cr measurement 91.7% of hypothyroid patients were iodine-deficient compared to 87.5% in the control group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups. No correlation was found between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and iodine deficiency. Conclusions. Iodine deficiency is prevalent in both hypothyroid patients and euthyroid patients. Because there is no significant difference between the groups, a single 24-hour urine or spot urine sample to determine UIC, UIE, and I : Cr, seems not suitable to determine iodine status in an individual participant.
Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Introduction. Renal function and thyroid metabolism are tightly related. However, evidence about subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease and its related factors is scarce. Objectives. Our aim is to analyze subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence and its related factors in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods. Nondialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease at stages 3 to 5 were included. Other inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and clinical stability. Patients with diagnosed thyroid illnesses were excluded. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > 5.3 mU/L, with free thyroxine 4 (FT4) between 0.54 and 1.24 ng/dl. Filiation data, comorbidities, and routine blood and urine test results were registered. Results. A total of 299 patients were included. Of them, 184 (61.5%) were men. The mean age was 71 ± 13 years old. The mean glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI) was 22 ± 9 ml/min/1.73 m2. According to chronic kidney disease stages, global distribution of patients was as follows: Stage 3, 67 patients (22.4%); Stage 4, 155 patients (51.8%); and Stage 5, 77 patients (25.8%). We found subclinical hypothyroidism in 54 (18.1%) patients. According to chronic kidney disease stages, distribution of affected patients was as follows: Stage 3, 9 patients (13%); Stage 4, 25 patients (16.1%); and Stage 5, 20 patients (26%). Differences among stages were statistically significant. By univariate analysis, factors related with subclinical hypothyroidism were as follows: age RR 1.048 (95% CI 1.019–1.078; ), hypertension RR 2.705 (95% CI 1.026–7.130; ), glomerular filtration rate RR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929–0.996; ), and proteinuria higher than 1 gram/day RR 2.387 (95% CI 1.303–4.374; ). By multivariate analysis adjusted by age, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease history, only age RR 1.016 (95% CI 1.009–1.028; ) and glomerular filtration rate RR 0.963 (95% CI 0.930–0.997; ) preserved their independent association with subclinical hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Subclinical hypothyroidism prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease is high and increases with renal disease severity. Factors independently related to subclinical hypothyroidism are age and glomerular filtration rate.