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Journal of Thyroid Research publishes articles on the molecular and cellular biology, immunology, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of thyroid diseases, with a specific focus on thyroid cancer.
Journal of Thyroid Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Diagnosis and Management of Graves’ Disease in Thailand: A Survey of Current Practice
Background. The data on clinical practice patterns in the evaluation and management of Graves’ disease (GD) are limited in Asia. The aims of this survey were to report the current practices in the management of GD in Thailand and to examine any international differences in the management of GD. Methods. Members of the Endocrine Society of Thailand who were board certified in endocrinology (N = 392) were invited to participate in an electronic survey on the management of GD using the same index case and questionnaire as in previous North American and European surveys. Results. One hundred and twenty responses (30.6%) from members were included. TSH receptor antibody measurement (29.2%), thyroid ultrasound (6.7%), and isotopic studies (5.9%) were used less frequently to confirm the etiology compared with those in North American and European surveys. Treatment with an antithyroid drug (ATD) was the preferred first choice of therapy (90.8%). Methimazole at 10–15 mg/day with a beta-blocker was the initial treatment of choice. The preferred ATD in pregnancy was propylthiouracil in the first trimester and methimazole in the second and third trimesters, which was similar to the North American and European surveys. Conclusion. Ultrasound and isotopic studies will be requested only by a small proportion of Thai endocrinologists. Higher physician preference for ATD is similar to Europe, Latin America, and other Asian countries. Geographical differences in the use of ATD, radioactive iodine, and thyroidectomy exist.
Distribution and Prognostic Significance of Estrogen Receptor α (ERα), Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ), and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER-2) in Thyroid Carcinoma
Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of follicular origin and the secondary aim was to correlate the expression with various clinicopathologic prognostic factors. Methods. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed on archival paraffin-embedded tissue sections (1991–2016). ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 expressions were correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic factors, disease recurrence, and overall survival (OS). Results. A total of 264 TC patients were included in the study. Incidences of ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 were 8.1 vs 16.3 vs 13.9% , 26.6 vs 11.5 vs 36.1% , and 12.9 vs 2.9 vs 0% in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC), respectively. Overall ERα had significant correlation with distant metastases (0.038) and in case of PDTC with multicentricity . ERβ had significant correlation with lymph node metastases in FTC. HER-2 correlated with tumor size only on univariate analysis. OS did not correlate with expression of any receptor. Conclusion. ERα, ERβ, and HER-2 have differential expression and prognostic implications in different TC subtypes.
The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology: A Cytohistological Study
Introduction. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) is a significant step to standardize the reporting of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA). It has high predictive value, reproducibility, and improved clinical significance. Aim. The study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility and reproducibility of “TBSRTC” at our institute. Methods and Material. The study included 646 thyroid FNAs which were reviewed by three pathologists and classified according to TBSRTC. Cytohistological correlation was done for 100 cases with surgical follow-up and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic accuracy, and risk of malignancy (ROM) were calculated. The interobserver variation among three pathologists was also assessed. Results. The distribution of cases in various TBSRTC categories is as follows: I—nondiagnostic 13.8%, II—benign 75.9%, III—atypia of undetermined significance (AUS)/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) 1.2%, IV—follicular neoplasm (FN)/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN) 3.7%, V—suspicious for malignancy (SM) 2.6%, and VI—malignant 2.8%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy are 72.4%, 94.3%, 84%, 89.2%, and 87.9%, respectively. The ROM of various TBSRTC categories were II—8.5%; III—66.7%; IV—63.6%; and V and VI—100%. Cohen’s Weighted Kappa score was 0.99 which indicates almost perfect agreement among the three pathologists. Conclusions. Our study substantiates greater reproducibility among pathologists using TBSRTC to arrive at a precise diagnosis with an added advantage of predicting the risk of malignancy which enables the clinician to plan for follow-up or surgery and also the extent of surgery.
Prognostic Significance of Thyroglobulin Antibodies in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Objective. To investigate whether variations in thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) are related to the recurrence or persistence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and may therefore be useful as surrogate tumor markers. Design and Methods. We retrospectively studied 98 subjects (83 women, 47 ± 15 years old) from an initial cohort of 1017 patients treated for DTC in five hospitals, with positive TgAb at any time during the follow-up. Patients presented five different patterns of evolution of serum TgAb concentrations: (1) stable positive TgAb, (2) de novo appearance, (3) an increase of more than 50%, (4) TgAb levels from positive to negative, and (5) a decrease of more than 50%. Results. In the group of 11 patients with stable TgAb, four cases presented persistence of the disease with structural incomplete response. In the group of 22 patients with sustained increasing trend rising more than 50% or de novo detectable TgAb levels, three patients were diagnosed with structural incomplete response. There was no evidence of recurrence or persistence of the disease in any of the 65 patients who showed a significant decrease in (n = 35) or disappearance of (n = 30) TgAb. Conclusions. Our results suggest that not only the appearance of a significant increase in TgAb but also stable concentrations of TgAb should be regarded as a sufficient risk condition for an active search for recurrent or persistent disease. Conversely, a significant decrease in TgAb levels can represent a good prognostic sign.
Lymph Node Metastasis and Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Cyprus: Suspicious Subcentimeter Nodules Should Undergo FNA When Multifocality is Suspected
Objective. To determine the prevalence of lymph node (LN) metastasis and extrathyroidal extension (ETE) in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in Cyprus and to evaluate the role of preoperative ultrasound (U/S) examination. Methods. A retrospective study of 102 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for PTMC in a 2-year period. Preoperatively, all patients had a thyroid and neck U/S examination with LN mapping. Tumor size according to the largest diameter, number of foci, LN metastasis, and ETE data was collected from the histopathological report and was compared to the preoperative U/S reports. Results. LN metastasis was present in 23.5% of patients. 15.7% had central, 3.9% had lateral, and 3.9% had both central and lateral LN metastasis. ETE was present in 27.5% of patients. 21.6% had multifocal disease, and in this group, 40.9% had LN metastasis and 36.4% had ETE. Multifocality (), size of tumor (), and ETE () were significantly associated with LN metastasis. The prevalence of LN metastasis in multifocal PTMC ≤5 mm was the same with multifocal PTMC >5 mm. The preoperative U/S sensitivity for the suspicious lateral neck and central LN was 100%, and the specificity was 100%. The preoperative U/S sensitivity for nodules suspicious for ETE was 53.6%, and the specificity was 100%. Conclusion. The presence of LN metastasis and ETE in our PTMC patients in Cyprus is frequent. Neck U/S mapping is a highly reliable and accurate tool in identifying metastatic nodes. LN metastasis is associated with ETE and multifocality. Suspicious subcentimeter nodules should undergo FNA irrespective of size when multifocality is suspected.
Microscopic Positive Tumor Margin Increases Risk for Disease Persistence but Not Recurrence in Patients with Stage T1-T2 Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has an overall excellent prognosis. Patients who develop recurrent disease have a more unfavorable disease course than those with no recurrence. Higher recurrence rates are seen with incomplete surgical resection and gross positive margins. It is unclear whether microscopic positive margin affects disease recurrence rates as much as grossly positive margin. Aim of the Study. To assess whether microscopic positive margin is an independent predictor of disease recurrence in patients with overall low-risk DTC. Patients and Methods. We conducted a retrospective single-center institutional review of 1,583 consecutive patients’ charts from 1995–2013 using the Canadian Thyroid Cancer Consortium Registry. We included adult patients with nonmetastasizing T1 and T2 DTC with a minimum of three years follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study factors that may influence the risk of persistent/recurrent disease. Strict definitions of persistent versus recurrent disease were applied. Results. 963 patients (152 men and 811 women) were included in the study with a mean age of 46 years. Microscopic positive margins were present in 12% of the specimens and were associated with an increased rate of persistent disease (8% versus 2% in the controls) but not with an increased risk of recurrent disease (1% in both groups). T2 tumors had a significantly higher incidence of positive margins than T1 tumors (48% versus 36%) and significantly higher nodal staging. Conclusions. Microscopic positive margin in the histopathology report in patients with low-risk DTC was associated with a higher rate of persistent disease but did not increase the risk of disease recurrence. A close follow-up of biomarkers and occult residual cancerous lesions is needed, especially in the first year. Further studies are needed to determine whether additional therapeutic measures to prevent recurrence are indicated in T1 and T2 DTC with positive microscopic surgical margins.