Table 3: E2 effects on thyroid protein expression, function, and proliferation in vitro.

StudyThyroid cellsPresence of ERα/ERβErα expressionErβ expressionProliferationNis expressionIodide uptakeTG mRNA

Kumar et al. [42]; 2010NPA87ERα+/ERβ+
KAT5ERα+/ERβ+
WROERα+/ERβ+
Rajoria et al. [43]; 2010BCPAPERα+/ERβ+
Nthy-3-1ERα+/ERβ+
Zeng et al. [44]; 2008KAT5ERα+/ERβ+0
FROERα+/ERβ+0
Zeng et al. [45]; 2007KAT5ERα+/ERβ+0
FROERα+/ERβ+
AROERα+/Erβ+0
Vivacqua et al. [46]; 2006WROERα+/ERβ
FROERα+/ERβ
AROERα−/ERβ
Lee et al. [47]; 2005KAT5
Banu et al. [48]; 2001NPA87ER+
WROER+
Manole et al. [6]; 2001HTC-TSHrERα+/ERβ+
GoiterERα+/ERβ+
XTC 133
Furlanetto et al. [49]; 2001FRTL-5
Furlanetto et al. [50]; 1999FRTL-5ERα+
Nagy et al. [51]; 1999*Mng
Ca
Ade
Del Senno et al. [52]; 1989**N
Ade
Ca00
Yang et al. [53]; 1988TT

Estrogen receptor (ER) +: presence of expression, –: absence of expression; NPA87, KAT5, and BCPAP: human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines; WRO and FRO: human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines; Nthy-3-1: human normal transformed thyroid cell line; ARO: human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line; HTC-TSHr: human thyroid carcinoma cell line lacking endogenous TSH receptor; XTC-133: thyroid cancer cell line of Hurthle cell origin; FRTL-5: Fischer rat thyroid cell line. Mng: multinodular goiter; Ca: carcinoma; Ade: adenoma; N: normal thyroid; TT: human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line; ↑: increase, : decrease, and 0: no effect, after E2 exposure. *: thyroid tissue obtained in surgical resection, under organotypic culture conditions for 48 hours; **: suspension cultures of thyroid follicles.