Table 4: Non-genomic estrogen effects on thyroid cells.

StudyCellsGPR30MAPKPI3kCyclin D1c-fosBcL-2Bax

Kumar et al. [42]; 2010NPA87
KAT5
WRO+
Zeng et al. [45]; 2007KAT5
FRO
WRO
Vivacqua et al. [46]; 2006WRO+
FRO+
ARO+
Manole et al. [6]; 2001HTC-TSHr
Goiter
XTC 133

NPA87 and KAT5: human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines; WRO and FRO: human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines; HTC-TSHr: human thyroid carcinoma cell line lacking endogenous TSH receptor; XTC-133: thyroid cancer cell line of Hurthle cell origin; Goiter: primary culture of human thyroid cells isolated from goiter nodules. (+): presence of expression; (−) absence of expression; (↑): increase, (): decrease, and (0): no effects, after E2 exposure.