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Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 979840, 6 pages
Research Article

Rap2A Is Upregulated in Invasive Cells Dissected from Follicular Thyroid Cancer

1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Received 11 April 2011; Revised 3 August 2011; Accepted 13 August 2011

Academic Editor: Maria Domenica Castellone

Copyright © 2011 Indira Prabakaran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The development of molecular biomarkers (BMs) of follicular thyroid carcinoma is aimed at advancing diagnosis of follicular neoplasm, as histological examination of those tumors does not lend itself to definitive diagnosis of carcinoma. We assessed the relative levels of expression of 6 genes: CCND2, PCSK2, PLAB, RAP2A, TSHR, and IGF-1R in archived thyroid tissue. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant change in 3 genes: PSCK2 (a 22.4-fold decrease, 𝑃 = 2 . 8 1 𝐸 βˆ’ 2 ), PLAB (an 8.3-fold increase, 𝑃 = 9 . 8 1 𝐸 βˆ’ 1 2 ), and RAP2A (a 6.3-fold increase, 𝑃 = 9 . 1 3 𝐸 βˆ’ 1 0 ) in carcinoma compared with adenoma. Expression of PCSK2 was equally low, PLAB was equally high, whereas RAP2A expression was significantly higher (25.9-fold, 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 9 ) in microdissected carcinoma cells that have invaded through the thyroid capsule and entered blood vessels than in thyroid tumor cells growing under the capsule. Thus, RAP2A appeared as a unique and worthy of further evaluation candidate BM associated with invasion of thyroid follicular cells.