Table 2: Regulation of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid and individuals with active thyroid disease.

DownregulatedUpregulated

Euthyroid individuals(i) Extremes of ages  
(ii) Pregnancy
(i) Smoking discontinuation  
(ii) Improvement in immune collapse in HIV  
(iii) Hep C treatment with interferon  
(iv) Nuclear fallout  
(v) Iodine supplementation  
(vi) Amiodarone, and iodine containing drugs

With thyroid disease(i) Pregnancy  
(ii) Radioiodine, after 1 year  
(iii) Antithyroid drugs  
(iii) Selenium
(i) Postpartum  
(ii) Postradioiodine
treatment

The table summarizes some of the various agents/events that may downregulate or upregulate thyroid autoantibodies (both TPO and Tg-Ab) in both euthyroid individuals and those with active thyroid disease. Abstracted from [3547, 4955].