Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2013, Article ID 481287, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/481287
Review Article

Thyroid and Aging or the Aging Thyroid? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Literature

1Department of Endocrinology, Gateshead Health NHS Foundation NHS Trust, UK
2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, UK

Received 14 June 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013

Academic Editor: Glenn D. Braunstein

Copyright © 2013 Naveen Aggarwal and Salman Razvi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “World Population Prospects. The 2006 Revision. Executive Summary,” United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2006.
  2. S. Mariotti, C. Franceschi, A. Cossarizza, and A. Pinchera, “The aging thyroid,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 686–715, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. A. Woeber, “Aging and the thyroid,” The Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 668–669, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. D. Hesch, J. Gatz, and J. Pape, “Total and free triiodothyronine and thyroid binding globulin concentration in elderly human persons,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Herrmann, H. J. Rusche, H. J. Kröll, P. Hilger, and H. L. Krüskemper, “Free triiodothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4 serum levels in old age,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 239–240, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. D. Hesch, J. Gatz, H. Jueppner, and P. Stubbe, “TBG dependency of age related variations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Pawlikowski, I. Owczarczyk, J. K. Komorowski andWisniewska Roszkowska, and W. Roszkowska, “Blood serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine in men over 60,” Endokrynologia Polska, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 593–601, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. U. Westgren, A. Burger, and S. Ingemansson, “Blood levels of 3,5,3′ triiodothyronine and thyroxine: differences between children, adults, and elderly subjects,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 200, no. 6, pp. 493–495, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. A. Rubenstein, V. P. Butler Jr., and S. C. Werner, “Progressive decrease in serum triiodothyronine concentrations with human aging: radioimmunoassay following extraction of serum,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 247–253, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Jeske and M. Thorner, “Serum T3 T4 and TSH in the elderly,” Endokrynologia Polska, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Herrmann, H. J. Rusche, H. J. Kroll, K. H. Rudorff, and H. L. Krüskemper, “Trijodthyronin: abnahme der serumkonzentration mit zunehmendem alter,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrif, vol. 99, no. 42, pp. 2122–2124, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. M. Hansen, L. Skovsted, and K. Siersbaek Nielsen, “Age dependent changes in iodine metabolism and thyroid function,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Lipson, E. L. Nickoloff, and T. H. Hsu, “A study of age-dependent changes in thyroid function tests in adults,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1124–1130, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. M. G. Tunbridge, D. C. Evered, and R. Hall, “The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 481–493, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. P. J. Vanderpump, W. M. G. Tunbridge, J. M. French et al., “The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 55–68, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. G. Hollowell, N. W. Staehling, W. Dana Flanders et al., “Serum TSH, T4, and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 489–499, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. I. Surks and J. G. Hollowell, “Age-specific distribution of serum thyrotropin and antithyroid antibodies in the U.S. population: implications for the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 4575–4582, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. I. Surks and L. Boucai, “Age- and race-based serum thyrotropin reference limits,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 496–502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. P. Bremner, P. Feddema, P. J. Leedman et al., “Age-related changes in thyroid function: a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, pp. 1554–1562, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. C. Waring, A. M. Arnold, A. B. Newman, P. Bùzková, C. Hirsch, and A. R. Cappola, “Longitudinal changes in thyroid function in the oldest old and survival: the cardiovascular health study all-stars study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 3944–3950, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. E. H. Hoogendoorn, A. R. Hermus, F. de Vegt et al., “Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in a population with borderline sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 104–111, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Völzke, D. Alte, T. Kohlmann et al., “Reference intervals of serum thyroid function tests in a previously iodine-deficient area,” Thyroid, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 279–285, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. V. Parle, J. A. Franklyn, K. W. Cross, S. C. Jones, and M. C. Sheppard, “Prevalence and follow-up of abnormal thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations in the elderly in the United Kingdom,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Meyerovitch, P. Rotman-Pikielny, M. Sherf, E. Battat, Y. Levy, and M. I. Surks, “Serum thyrotropin measurements in the community: five-year follow-up in a large network of primary care physicians,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 14, pp. 1533–1538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Vanhaelst, P. Neve, P. Chailly, and P. A. Bastenie, “Coronary-artery disease in hypothyroidism. Observations in clinical myxoedema,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7520, pp. 800–802, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Biondi, E. A. Palmieri, G. Lombardi, and S. Fazio, “Effects of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on the heart,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 137, no. 11, pp. 904–914, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Caraccio, E. Ferrannini, and F. Monzani, “Lipoprotein profile in subclinical hypothyroidism: response to levothyroxine replacement, a randomized placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1533–1538, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Monzani, N. Caraccio, M. Kozàkowà et al., “Effect of levothyroxine replacement on lipid profile and intima-media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 2099–2106, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Razvi, L. Ingoe, G. Keeka, C. Oates, C. McMillan, and J. U. Weaver, “The beneficial effect of L-thyroxine on cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function, and quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism: randomized, crossover trial,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1715–1723, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Taddei, N. Caraccio, A. Virdis et al., “Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in subclinical hypothyroidism: beneficial effect of levothyroxine therapy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3731–3737, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. R. Cappola, L. P. Fried, A. M. Arnold et al., “Thyroid status, cardiovascular risk, and mortality in older adults,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 9, pp. 1033–1041, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Rodondi, D. C. Bauer, A. R. Cappola et al., “Subclinical thyroid dysfunction, cardiac function, and the risk of heart failure: the cardiovascular health study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 14, pp. 1152–1159, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Rodondi, A. B. Newman, E. Vittinghoff et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of heart failure, other cardiovascular events, and death,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 21, pp. 2460–2466, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Razvi, A. Shakoor, M. Vanderpump, J. U. Weaver, and S. H. S. Pearce, “The influence of age on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease: a metaanalysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 2998–3007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. A. Hyland, A. M. Arnold, J. S. Lee, and A. R. Cappola, “Persistent subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk in the elderly: the cardiovascular health study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 533–540, 2013 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Razvi, J. U. Weaver, T. J. Butler, and S. H. Pearce, “Levothyroxine treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, and mortality,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, no. 10, pp. 811–817, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Gussekloo, E. van Exel, A. J. M. de Craen, A. E. Meinders, M. Frölich, and R. G. J. Westendorp, “Thyroid status, disability and cognitive function, and survival in old age,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 21, pp. 2591–2599, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. V. Parle, P. Maisonneuve, M. C. Sheppard, P. Boyle, and J. A. Franklyn, “Prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly people from one low serum thyrotropin result: a 10-year cohort study,” Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9285, pp. 861–865, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Iervasi, S. Molinaro, P. Landi et al., “Association between increased mortality and mild thyroid dysfunction in cardiac patients,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 14, pp. 1526–1532, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. T. Sawin, A. Geller, P. A. Wolf et al., “Low serum thyrotropin concentrations as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in older persons,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 19, pp. 1249–1252, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Auer, P. Scheibner, T. Mische, W. Langsteger, O. Eber, and B. Eber, “Subclinical hyperthyroidism as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation,” American Heart Journal, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 838–842, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Biondi, E. A. Palmieri, S. Fazio et al., “Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism affects quality of life and cardiac morphology and function in young and middle-aged patients,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 4701–4705, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Collet, J. Gussekloo, D. C. Bauer et al., “Subclinical hyperthyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, no. 10, pp. 799–809, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypo-Thyroidism Trial (TRUST), http://www.trustthyroidtrial.com.
  45. J. D. Davis and G. Tremont, “Neuropsychiatric aspects of hypothyroidism and treatment reversibility,” Minerva Endocrinologica, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 49–65, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. T. Dugbartey, “Neurocognitive aspects of hypothyroidism,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 13, pp. 1413–1418, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Kamil and R. T. Joffe, “Neuroendocrine testing in electroconvulsive therapy,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 961–970, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. B. Nemeroff and P. T. Loosen, Handbook of Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
  49. M. P. J. van Boxtel, P. P. C. A. Menheere, O. Bekers, E. Hogervorst, and J. Jolles, “Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht Aging Study,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 891–898, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. N. Prinz, J. M. Scanlan, P. P. Vitaliano et al., “Thyroid hormones: positive relationships with cognition in healthy, euthyroid older men,” Journals of Gerontology A, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. M111–M116, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Volpato, J. M. Guralnik, L. P. Fried, A. T. Remaley, A. R. Cappola, and L. J. Launer, “Serum thyroxine level and cognitive decline in euthyroid older women,” Neurology, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1055–1061, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Å. Wahlin, T. B. R. Wahlin, B. J. Small, and L. Bäckman, “Influences of thyroid stimulating hormone on cognitive functioning in very old age,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. P234–P239, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Å. Wahlin, D. Bunce, and T. B. R. Wahlin, “Longitudinal evidence of the impact of normal thyroid stimulating hormone variations on cognitive functioning in very old age,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 625–637, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. Monzani, P. Del Guerra, N. Caraccio et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism: neurobehavioral features and beneficial effect of L-thyroxine treatment,” Clinical Investigator, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 367–371, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. M. Baldini, A. Vita, M. C. Mauri et al., “Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 925–935, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Del Ser Quijano, C. Delgado, S. Martínez Espinosa, and C. Vázquez, “Cognitive deficiency in mild hypothyroidism,” Neurologia, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 193–198, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. E. Cook, R. D. Nebes, E. M. Halligan et al., “Memory impairment in elderly individuals with a mildly elevated serum TSH: the role of processing resources, depression and cerebrovascular disease,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 175–183, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Manciet, J. F. Dartigues, A. Decamps et al., “The PAQUID survey and correlates of subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly community residents in the southwest of France,” Age and Ageing, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. Osterweil, K. Syndulko, S. N. Cohen et al., “Cognitive function in non-demented older adults with hypothyroidism,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 325–335, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Luboshitzky, A. S. Oberman, N. Kaufman, N. Reichman, and E. Flatau, “Prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and hypothyroidism in an elderly community population,” Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. J. Park, E. J. Lee, Y. J. Lee et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not associated with metabolic derangement, cognitive impairment, depression or poor quality of life (QoL) in elderly subjects,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. e68–e73, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. T. de Jongh, P. Lips, N. M. van Schoor et al., “Endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders, physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 545–554, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Nystrom, K. Caidahl, G. Fager, C. Wikkelso, P. A. Lundberg, and G. Lindstedt, “A double-blind cross-over 12-month study of L-thyroxine treatment of women with 'subclinical' hypothyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Jaeschke, G. Guyatt, H. Gerstein et al., “Does treatment with L-thyroxine influence health status in middle-aged and older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism?” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 744–749, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. H. Samuels, K. G. Schuff, N. E. Carlson, P. Carello, and J. S. Janowsky, “Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 2545–2551, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Jorde, K. Waterloo, H. Storhaug, A. Nyrnes, J. Sundsfjord, and T. G. Jenssen, “Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 145–153, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Parle, L. Roberts, S. Wilson et al., “A randomized controlled trial of the effect of thyroxine replacement on cognitive function in community-living elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Birmingham elderly thyroid study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 3623–3632, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. H. Gan and S. H. Pearce, “The thyroid in mind: cognitive function and low thyrotropin in older people,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 3438–3449, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  69. E. M. Simonsick, A. B. Newman, L. Ferrucci et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism and functional mobility in older adults,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 21, pp. 2011–2017, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. V. Mobbs, G. A. Bray, R. L. Atkinson et al., “Neuroendocrine and pharmacological manipulations to assess how caloric restriction increases life span,” The Journals of Gerontology A, vol. 56, pp. 34–44, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. V. D. Longo and C. E. Finch, “Evolutionary medicine: from dwarf model systems to healthy centenarians?” Science, vol. 299, no. 5611, pp. 1342–1346, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Blanc, D. Schoeller, J. Kemnitz et al., “Energy expenditure of rhesus monkeys subjected to 11 years of dietary restriction,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Atzmon, N. Barzilai, J. G. Hollowell, M. I. Surks, and I. Gabriely, “Extreme Longevity is associated with increased serum thyrotropin,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1251–1254, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. W. van den Beld, T. J. Visser, R. A. Feelders, D. E. Grobbee, and S. W. J. Lamberts, “Thyroid hormone concentrations, disease, physical function, and mortality in elderly men,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 6403–6409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. C. Waring, S. Harrison, M. H. Samuels et al., “Thyroid function and mortality in older men: a prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 862–870, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. B. Robertson, “The influence of thyroid alone and of thyroid administrated together with nucleic acids upon the growth and longevity of white mouses,” Australian Journal of Experimental Biology & Medical Science, vol. 5, pp. 69–74, 1928. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. H. Ooka and T. Shinkai, “Effects of chronic hyperthyroidism on the lifespan of the rat,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 275–282, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Ooka, S. Fujita, and E. Yoshimoto, “Pituitary-thyroid activity and longevity in neonatally thyroxine-treated rats,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. M. Brown-Borg, “Hormonal regulation of longevity in mammals,” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 28–45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. P. Rozing, R. G. J. Westendorp, A. J. M. de Craen et al., “Low serum free triiodothyronine levels mark familial longevity: the leiden longevity study,” Journals of Gerontology A, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 365–368, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. P. Rozing, J. J. Houwing-Duistermaat, P. E. Slagboom et al., “Familial longevity is associated with decreased thyroid function,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 4979–4984, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. G. Atzmon, N. Barzilai, M. I. Surks, and I. Gabriely, “Genetic predisposition to elevated serum thyrotropin is associated with exceptional longevity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 4768–4775, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. F. D. von Recklinghausen, Die Fibröse oder deformierende Ostitis, die Osteomalazie und die osteoplastische Carzinose in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen, George Reimer, Berlin, Germany, 1891.
  84. J. M. Britto, A. J. Fenton, W. R. Holloway, and G. C. Nicholson, “Osteoblasts mediate thyroid hormone stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption,” Endocrinology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 169–176, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. E. Abe, R. C. Marians, W. Yu et al., “TSH is a negative regulator of skeletal remodeling,” Cell, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 151–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. Grimnes, N. Emaus, R. M. Joakimsen, Y. Figenschau, and R. Jorde, “The relationship between serum TSH and bone mineral density in men and postmenopausal women: the Tromsø study,” Thyroid, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1147–1155, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Nagata, A. Suzuki, S. Sekiguchi et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism is related to lower heel QUS in postmenopausal women,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 625–630, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. C. Bauer, M. C. Nevitt, B. Ettinger, and K. Stone, “Low thyrotropin levels are not associated with bone loss in older women: a prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 2931–2936, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. C. Bauer, B. Ettinger, M. C. Nevitt, and K. L. Stone, “Risk for fracture in women with low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 134, no. 7, pp. 561–568, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. S. Lee, P. Bůžková, H. A. Fink et al., “Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and incident hip fracture in older adults,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 21, pp. 1876–1883, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. C. Waring, S. Harrison, H. A. Fink et al., “A prospective study of thyroid function, bone loss, and fractures in older men: The MrOS study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 472–479, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. J. Faber and A. M. Galløe, “Changes in bone mass during prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment: a meta-analysis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 350–356, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. B. Uzzan, J. Campos, M. Cucherat, P. Nony, J. P. Boissel, and G. Y. Perret, “Effects on bone mass of long term treatment with thyroid hormones: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 4278–4289, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus