Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 7176934, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7176934
Research Article

Hypermetabolic Thyroid Incidentaloma on Positron Emission Tomography: Review of Laboratory, Radiologic, and Pathologic Characteristics

1Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Abtin Doroudinia; moc.liamg@4531nitba

Received 28 April 2017; Accepted 18 July 2017; Published 20 August 2017

Academic Editor: Brendan C. Stack Jr.

Copyright © 2017 Mehrdad Bakhshayesh Karam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. G. Iyer, A. R. Shaha, C. E. Silver et al., “Thyroid incidentalomas: to treat or not to treat,” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 267, no. 7, pp. 1019–1026, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. Chen, M. Parsons, D. A. Torigian, H. Zhuang, and A. Alavi, “Evaluation of thyroid FDG uptake incidentally identified on FDG-PET/CT imaging,” Nuclear Medicine Communications, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 240–244, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Bertagna, G. Treglia, A. Piccardo, and R. Giubbini, “Diagnostic and clinical significance of F-18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 3866–3875, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Are, J. F. Hsu, H. Schoder, J. P. Shah, S. M. Larson, and A. R. Shaha, “FDG-PET detected thyroid incidentalomas: Need for further investigation?” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 239–247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Mehrian, A. M. Moghaddam, E. Tavakkol et al., “Determining the lymphadenopathy characteristics of the mediastinum in lung CT scan of children with tuberculosis,” International Journal of Mycobacteriology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 306–312, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. M. Hashemian, P. Tabarsi, M. B. Karam et al., “Radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients of intensive care units,” International Journal of Mycobacteriology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Mehrain, A. M. Moghaddam, E. Tavakol et al., “Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in pediatric tuberculosis in computed tomography scan,” International Journal of Mycobacteriology, vol. 5, pp. S242–S243, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. W. Kang, S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Kang et al., “Prevalence and risk of cancer of focal thyroid incidentaloma identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for metastasis evaluation and cancer screening in healthy subjects,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 4100–4104, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Safavi, F. Azizi, R. Jafari, S. Chaibakhsh, and A. A. Safavi, “Thyroid cancer epidemiology in Iran: A time trend study,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 407–412, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Sasaki, Y. Ichiya, Y. Kuwabara et al., “An evaluation of FDG-PET in the detection and differentiation of thyroid tumours,” Nuclear Medicine Communications, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 957–963, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Brindle, D. Mullan, B. K. Yap, and A. Gandhi, “Thyroid incidentalomas discovered on positron emission tomography CT scanning - Malignancy rate and significance of standardised uptake values,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1528–1532, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Anil, A. Hegde, and F. H. V. Chong, “Thyroid nodules: risk stratification for malignancy with ultrasound and guided biopsy,” Cancer Imaging, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 209–223, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Y. Ko, E.-K. Kim, H. J. Moon, J. H. Yoon, H. Y. Kim, and J. Y. Kwak, “Application of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in the Ultrasound Assessment of Thyroid Nodules According to Physician Experience,” Ultrasound Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. K. Shetty, M. M. Maher, P. F. Hahn, E. F. Halpern, and S. L. Aquino, “Significance of incidental thyroid lesions detected on CT: Correlation among CT, sonography, and pathology,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 187, no. 5, pp. 1349–1356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Kim, S. H. Hwang, J. Cha, K. Jo, N. Lee, and M. Yun, “Risk Stratification of Thyroid Incidentalomas Found on PET/CT: The Value of Iodine Content on Noncontrast Computed Tomography,” Thyroid, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1249–1254, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Pruthi, P. Choudhury, M. Gupta, and S. Taywade, “Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels,” Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 16–20, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Karantanis, T. V. Bogsrud, G. A. Wiseman et al., “Clinical significance of diffusely increased 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid gland,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 896–901, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Y. Lee, J. Y. Choi, Y.-H. Choi et al., “Diffuse thyroid uptake incidentally found on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in subjects without cancer history,” Korean Journal of Radiology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 501–509, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Hsieh, S. Lin, and B. Yang, The clinical relevance of thyroid incidentalomas detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Ann Nucl Med Sci, 16, 53–58, 2003.
  20. D. L. King, B. C. Stack Jr., P. M. Spring, R. Walker, and D. L. Bodenner, “Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-positive thyroid incidentalomas,” Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 400–404, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. J. Kang, J. Hyun O., J. H. Baik, S. L. Jung, Y. H. Park, and S. K. Chung, “Incidental thyroid uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT: Correlation with ultrasonography and pathology,” Annals of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 729–737, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus