Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Trends in Pakistan: Activity Survey from Pakistan Bone Marrow Transplant GroupRead the full article
Journal of Transplantation publishes research related to heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas and stem cell transplantation as well as focusing on the histocompatibility, related side effects and complications of those transplantations.
Journal of Transplantation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Leading Transplantation Journals: A Trend Analysis, 2011–2021
Background. As the field of transplantation has expanded, so have the quantity and variety of articles published on the topic. Evaluation of publications and journals is crucial to the expansion of transplant research. This study investigated the research output and journal metrics of the leading solid organ transplant journals published between 2011 and 2021 based on estimations of the trends in the category CiteScore from the Scopus database. Materials and Methods. We obtained data on the listed journals from the Scopus Source List. We then filtered the list for “Transplantation” journals. Only the top quartiles or quartile 1 (Q1) journals were placed in this category. This study focused specifically on transplantation journals and did not include other journals related to diseases of transplanted organs such as the kidney, liver, heart, and lungs. Results. The number of transplantation journals increased by 42.8% in the last ten years, from 28 in 2011 to 40 in 2021. Between 2011 and 2021, nine transplantation journals ranked in the highest quartile (Q1). The American Journal of Transplantation was the top journal in both years, with a 150% increase in citations and an 11.2% increase in articles published. Open access (OA) transplant journals rose from 3 in 2011 to 10 in 2021. In 2021, OA journals earned 8,555 citations, a 125% increase from 2011. Despite this increase, non-OA journals received more citations than OA in 2021 ( value 0.026). Conclusion. Solid organ transplantation advances lead to more publications and citations. Regular journals and publications evaluation benefits academics and policymakers by promoting the growth of research. This study examined solid organ transplantation journals and gave a global perspective on transplant journal rankings and compared their status in 2011 and 2021.
Frailty and Age-Associated Assessments Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease and Transplantation Outcomes
Background. Frailty is often defined as a decrease in physiological reserve and has been shown to be correlated with adverse health outcomes and mortality in the general population. This condition is highly prevalent in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient population as well as in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Other age-associated changes include sarcopenia, nutrition, cognition, and depression. In assessing the contributions of these components to patient outcomes and their prevalence in the CKD and KT patient population, it can be determined how such variables may be associated with frailty and the extent to which they may impact the adverse outcomes an individual may experience. Objectives. We sought to perform a systematic literature review to review published data on frailty and associated age-associated syndromes in CKD and KT patients. Results. Over 80 references pertinent to frailty, sarcopenia, nutrition, cognition, or depression in patients with CKD or KT were identified. Systematic review was performed to evaluate the data supporting the use of the following approaches: Fried Frailty, Short Physical Performance Battery, Frailty Index, Sarcopenia Index, CT scan quantification of muscle mass, health-related quality of life, and assessment tools for nutrition, cognition, and depression. Conclusion. This report represents a comprehensive review of previously published research articles on this topic. The intersectionality between all these components in contributing to the patient’s clinical status suggests a need for a multifaceted approach to developing comprehensive care and treatment for the CKD and KT population to improve outcomes before and after transplantation.
Banff 2016 Global Assessment and Quantitative Scoring for T Cell-Mediated Liver Transplant Rejection are Interchangeable
Introduction. Histopathological assessment of liver biopsies is the current “gold standard” for diagnosing graft dysfunction after liver transplantation (LT), as graft dysfunction can have nonspecific clinical presentations and inconsistent patterns of liver biochemical dysfunction. Most commonly, post-LT, graft dysfunction within the first year, is due to acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) which is characterised histologically by the degree of portal inflammation (PI), bile duct damage (BDD), and venous endothelial inflammation (VEI). This study aimed to establish the relationship between global assessment, which is the global grading of rejection using a “gestalt” approach, and the rejection activity index (RAI) of each component of TCMR as described in revised Banff 2016 guidelines. Methods. Liver biopsies (n = 90) taken from patients who underwent LT in 2015 and 2016 at the Australian National Liver Transplant Unit were identified from the electronic medical records. All biopsy slides were microscopically graded by at least two assessors independently using the revised 2016 Banff criteria. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS v21. A Fisher–Freeman–Halton test was performed to assess the correlation between the global assessment and the RAI scores for each TCMR biopsy. Results. Within the cohort, 60 (37%, n = 164) patients underwent at least 1 biopsy within 12 months after LT. The most common biopsy outcome (total n = 90) was acute TCMR (64, 71.1%). Global assessment of TCMR slides strongly positively correlated with PI ( value <0.001), BDD ( value <0.001), VEI ( value <0.001), and total RAI ( value <0.001). Liver biochemistry of patients with TCMR significantly improved within 4 to 6 weeks post-biopsy compared to the day of the biopsy. Conclusion. In acute TCMR, global assessment and total RAI are strongly correlated and can be used interchangeably to describe the severity of TCMR.
Risk Factors for Symptomatic Pericardial Effusions Posthematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
Background. Pericardial effusions are a known complication posthematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), causing significant morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the development of high-grade effusions requiring interventions. Procedure. A retrospective chart review of all HSCT patients over a period of 7 years (2013–2019) in a single institution in the Northeastern United States is conducted. All patients who developed an effusion requiring intervention were included. Patient’s clinical characteristics were compared with all others transplanted during the same time period. Echocardiogram findings of the affected patients were compared to a case-control cohort of unaffected patients with similar age and diagnosis. Chi-square and paired t-tests were utilized to ascertain statistical differences between the groups. Results. A total of 15 patients out of 201 (7.5%) transplanted at our institution developed a moderate or large pericardial effusion requiring pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window. Of this cohort, 13 (87%) underwent a myeloablative preparative regimen, 13 (87%) had cyclophosphamide as part of their regimen, 13 (87%) had recent treatment for viral reactivation, 6 (40%) had an underlying hemoglobinopathy diagnosis, and only 4 (27%) had an active diagnosis of GVHD. A myeloablative preparative regimen had a higher rate of effusion requiring intervention, although it was not statistically significant, and concurrent GVHD was not predictive of effusion development. However, exposure to cyclophosphamide, recent treatment for viral reactivation, and a diagnosis of transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (Ta-TMA) were highly associated with effusions. The latter was associated with increased mortality. The duration of pericardial effusion correlated with the pretransplant echocardiogram left ventricle end diastolic diameter z-score and apical 4-chamber left ventricular peak average strain measurement. Conclusions. Potential risk factors for pericardial effusions post-HSCT include a diagnosis of Ta-TMA, active viral infection, exposure to cyclophosphamide, and a higher left ventricle end diastolic diameter z-score. This information may help guide management for these patients, including identifying high-risk subjects, determining the frequency of echocardiograms, and determining specific echocardiogram measures to follow over time.
Improved Medication Adherence with the Use of Extended-Release Tacrolimus in Liver Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. Nonadherence to immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) leads to deterioration in health outcomes. Once-dailyextended-release tacrolimus (TAC-ER) may improve adherence when compared to twice-dailyimmediate-release tacrolimus (TAC-IR). Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled study to evaluate medication adherence, clinical efficacy, and safety of TAC-ER in stable LTR. All patients >18 years who underwent liver transplantation before 6 months were eligible. Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to continued TAC-IR or conversion to TAC-ER. The primary outcome was change in medication adherence from baseline to 9 months, assessed using BAASIS. Secondary outcomes were tacrolimus trough levels, safety, and quality of life. Results. Thirty-one patients were consented and randomized to either of the two groups: conversion to TAC-ER (n = 15) or continued TAC-IR (n = 16). Six patients in the TAC-ER group withdrew after randomization due to apprehension about switching medication (n = 2), unwillingness to travel (n = 2), and increased liver tests after conversion (n = 2, both were acute rejections despite therapeutic tacrolimus levels and were considered unrelated to TAC-ER). We compared the results of nine patients in the TAC-ER group that completed the study with those of sixteen in the TAC-IR group. At baseline, there was no difference in tacrolimus trough levels between groups. Improved adherence was observed in the TAC-ER group as 100% of patients reported at least one period of full adherence during the study period (100% vs. 62.6%, ). Tacrolimus trough levels and liver tests were comparable between groups throughout the study. There were no differences in eGFR, HbA1c, or QoL between the groups. Conclusion. TAC-ER improved medication adherence while maintaining comparable trough levels, liver function, and QoL as TAC-IR in LTR.
Initiation of Liver Transplant in Nepal: A Milestone
Background. The incidence of chronic liver disease is increasing in the Nepalese population. Liver transplantation (LT) is the best option for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nepal’s first liver transplant was performed in 2016 in an international collaborative effort at Shahid Dharmabhakta National Transplant Centre (SDNTC), Bhaktapur, Nepal. We aim to report details of the first five patients who had undergone liver transplantation in SDNTC before the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in the history of transplantation in Nepal. Method. A descriptive analysis of the clinical data of five adult recipients of liver transplantation at SDNTC was done. We described the patient’s demographics, length of stay, and survival of all the first five patients who had undergone four living donor liver transplantations and one brain-dead donor liver transplantation in SDNTC before the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Results. Recipients were between 36 and 63 years old. The recipients of the four live donor liver transplants (LDLT) and one brain-dead donor liver transplant (DDLT) had alcoholic liver disease and cryptogenic liver disease, leading to end-stage liver disease. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores ranged from 23 to 34. Out of five, four recipients and four donors are doing well and relishing the prospect of a normal life, while the recipient of a brain-dead donor liver transplant passed away due to postoperative primary graft failure. Conclusion. Despite the small number of liver transplants that have been done, the success of these has created confidence in a sustainable liver transplantation program in Nepal.