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Journal of Transplantation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 928081, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA

Received 2 April 2012; Revised 18 June 2012; Accepted 27 June 2012

Academic Editor: Kazuhiko Yamada

Copyright © 2012 K. V. Shenoy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) has been associated with lung allograft rejection in rat transplant models. In human transplant recipients, BALT has not been linked to clinically significant rejection. We hypothesize that the immunohistochemical composition of BALT varies with the presence of acute lung allograft rejection. Methods. We retrospectively examined 40 human lung allograft recipients transplanted from 3/1/1999 to 6/1/2008. Patients were grouped by frequency and severity of acute rejection based on International Society of Heart Lung Transplant (ISHLT) criteria. Transbronchial biopsies were reviewed for BALT by a blinded pathologist. BALT if present was immunohistochemically stained to determine T-and B-cell subpopulations. Results. BALT presence was associated with an increased frequency of acute rejection episodes in the first year after transplantation. Patients with a lower CD4/CD8 ratio had an increased rejection rate; however, BALT size or densities of T-cell and B-cell subpopulations did not correlate with rejection rate. Conclusion. The presence of BALT is associated with an increased frequency of rejection one year after transplant. The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. The immunohistochemical composition of BALT may predict patients prone to frequent episodes of acute cellular rejection.