Table of Contents
Leukemia Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 401784, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/401784
Research Article

Cell-Type-Specific Effects of Silibinin on Vitamin D-Induced Differentiation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells Are Associated with Differential Modulation of RXRα Levels

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel

Received 26 February 2012; Accepted 15 March 2012

Academic Editor: George P. Studzinski

Copyright © 2012 Rina Wassermann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Redaelli, M. F. Botteman, J. M. Stephens, S. Brandt, and C. L. Pashos, “Economic burden of acute myeloid leukemia: a literature review,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 237–247, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. L. Shipley and J. N. Butera, “Acute myelogenous leukemia,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 649–658, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. T. Fathi, S. Grant, and J. E. Karp, “Exploiting cellular pathways to develop new treatment strategies for AML,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 142–150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. J. Hughes, E. Marcinkowska, E. Gocek, G. P. Studzinski, and G. Brown, “Vitamin D3-driven signals for myeloid cell differentiation—implications for differentiation therapy,” Leukemia Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 553–565, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Jones, “Vitamin D analogs,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 447–472, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Danilenko and G. P. Studzinski, “Enhancement by other compounds of the anti-cancer activity of vitamin D3 and its analogs,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 298, no. 2, pp. 339–358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Danilenko, Q. Wang, X. Wang, J. Levy, Y. Sharoni, and G. P. Studzinski, “Carnosic acid potentiates the antioxidant and prodifferentiation effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in leukemia cells but does not promote elevation of basal levels of intracellular calcium,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1325–1332, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Danilenko, X. Wang, and G. P. Studzinski, “Carnosic acid and promotion of monocytic differentiation of HL60-G cells initiated by other agents,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 93, no. 16, pp. 1224–1233, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Steiner, I. Priel, J. Giat, J. Levy, Y. Sharoni, and M. Danilenko, “Carnosic acid inhibits proliferation and augments differentiation of human leukemic cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 135–144, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Zhang, G. H. Posner, M. Danilenko, and G. P. Studzinski, “Differentiation-inducing potency of the seco-steroid JK-1624F2-2 can be increased by combination with an antioxidant and a p38MAPK inhibitor which upregulates the JNK pathway,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 105, no. 1–5, pp. 140–149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. Bobilev, V. Novik, I. Levi et al., “The Nrf2 transcription factor is a positive regulator of myeloid differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 317–329, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Thompson, M. Danilenko, L. Vassilev, and G. P. Studzinski, “Tumor suppressor p53 status does not determine the differentiation- associated G1 cell cycle arrest induced in leukemia cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and antioxidants,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Sharabani, E. Izumchenko, Q. Wang et al., “Cooperative antitumor effects of vitamin D3 derivatives and rosemary preparations in a mouse model of myeloid leukemia,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 3012–3021, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Shabtay, H. Sharabani, Z. Barvish et al., “Synergistic antileukemic activity of carnosic acid-rich rosemary extract and the 19-nor Gemini vitamin D analogue in a mouse model of systemic acute myeloid leukemia,” Oncology, vol. 75, no. 3-4, pp. 203–214, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. N. Kang, M. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, D. Cho, and T. S. Kim, “Induction of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation into monocytes by silibinin: involvement of protein kinase C,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1487–1495, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. X. Wang, E. Gocek, V. Novik, J. S. Harrison, M. Danilenko, and G. P. Studzinski, “Inhibition of Cot1/Tlp2 oncogene in AML cells reduces ERK5 activation and upregulates p27Kip1 concomitant with enhancement of differentiation and cell cycle arrest induced by silibinin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 22, pp. 4542–4551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Zhang, J. S. Harrison, M. Uskokovic, M. Danilenko, and G. P. Studzinski, “Silibinin can induce differentiation as well as enhance vitamin D3-induced differentiation of human AML cells ex vivo and regulates the levels of differentiation-related transcription factors,” Hematological Oncology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 124–132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. B. Cullinan, D. Zhang, M. Hannink, E. Arvisais, R. J. Kaufman, and J. A. Diehl, “Nrf2 is a direct PERK substrate and effector of PERK-dependent cell survival,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 7198–7209, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. P. Studzinski, K. B. Reddy, H. Z. Hill, and A. K. Bhandal, “Potentiation of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 correlates with reduced rate of maturation of DNA replication intermediates,” Cancer Research, vol. 51, no. 13, pp. 3451–3455, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Q. Wang, H. Salman, M. Danilenko, and G. P. Studzinski, “Cooperation between antioxidants and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in induction of leukemia HL60 cell differentiation through the JNK/AP-1/Egr-1 pathway,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 204, no. 3, pp. 964–974, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Pesakhov, M. Khanin, G. P. Studzinski, and M. Danilenko, “Distinct combinatorial effects of the plant polyphenols curcumin, carnosic acid, and silibinin on proliferation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 811–824, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Dimberg, F. Bahram, I. Karlberg, L. G. Larsson, K. Nilsson, and F. Öberg, “Retinoic acid-induced cell cycle arrest of human myeloid cell lines is associated with sequential down-regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E and posttranscriptional up-regulation of p27Kip1,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 2199–2206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. K. Kwak and T. W. Kensler, “Targeting NRF2 signaling for cancer chemoprevention,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 244, no. 1, pp. 66–76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Sokoloski, K. Shyam, and A. C. Sartorelli, “Induction of the differentiation of hl-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by curcumin in combination with low levels of vitamin D3,” Oncology Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Liu, R. L. Chang, X. X. Cui, H. L. Newmark, and A. H. Conney, “Synergistic effects of curcumin on all-trans retinoic acid-and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells,” Oncology Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 19–29, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. H. Poon, J. Zhang, C. Wang, A. K. Tse, C. K. Wan, and W. F. Fong, “Betulinic acid enhances 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 619–624, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. N. Kang, S. H. Kim, S. W. Chung, M. H. Lee, H. J. Kim, and T. S. Kim, “Enhancement of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells into monocytes by parthenolide via inhibition of NF-κB activity,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1235–1244, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. H. Kim, S. N. Kang, H. J. Kim, and T. S. Kim, “Potentiation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells into monocytes by costunolide, a germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1233–1242, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, and T. S. Kim, “Differential involvement of protein kinase C in human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation enhanced by artemisinin,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 482, no. 1–3, pp. 67–76, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. A. Sokoloski, W. F. Hodnick, S. T. Mayne, C. Cinquina, C. S. Kim, and A. C. Sartorelli, “Induction of the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by vitamin E and other antioxidants in combination with low levels of vitamin D3: possible relationship to NF-κB,” Leukemia, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1546–1553, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Amir, M. Karas, J. Giat et al., “Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Makishima, Y. Honma, M. Hozumi et al., “Effects of inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase activity and/or phosphatidylinositol turnover on differentiation of some human myelomonocytic leukemia cells,” Leukemia Research, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 701–708, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. N. Kang, S. W. Chung, and T. S. Kim, “Capsaicin potentiates 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D3 and all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 420, no. 2-3, pp. 83–90, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Yamada, Y. Honma, K. I. Asahi, T. Sassa, K. I. Hino, and S. Tomoyasu, “Differentiation of human acute myeloid leukaemia cells in primary culture in response to cotylenin A, a plant growth regulator,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 814–821, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. K. Farmer, X. He, M. L. Schmitz, J. Rubin, and M. S. Nanes, “Inhibitory effect of NF-κB on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoid X receptor function,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. E213–E220, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. X. Lu, P. Farmer, J. Rubin, and M. S. Nanes, “Integration of the NfκB p65 subunit into the vitamin D receptor transcriptional complex: identification of p65 domains that inhibit 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated transcription,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 833–848, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. X. Qi, R. Pramanik, J. Wang et al., “The p38 and JNK pathways cooperate to trans-activate vitamin D receptor via c-Jun/AP-1 and sensitize human breast cancer cells to vitamin D3-induced growth inhibition,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 29, pp. 25884–25892, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Takeshita, A. Watanabe, Y. Takada, and S. Hanazawa, “Selective stimulation by ceramide of the expression of the α isoform of retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors in osteoblastic cells. A role of sphingosine 1-phosphate-mediated AP-1 in the ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of these receptors,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 41, pp. 32220–32226, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Li, R. A. Finch, and A. C. Sartorelli, “Role of vitamin D3 receptor in the synergistic differentiation of WEHI- 3B leukemia cells by vitamin D3 and retinoic acid,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 249, no. 2, pp. 279–290, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Amano, Y. Cho, M. Matsunawa, K. Komiyama, and M. Makishima, “Increased nuclear expression and transactivation of vitamin D receptor by the cardiotonic steroid bufalin in human myeloid leukemia cells,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 114, no. 3–5, pp. 144–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Swami, A. V. Krishnan, D. M. Peehl, and D. Feldman, “Genistein potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in DU145 human prostate cancer cells: role of the direct inhibition of CYP24 enzyme activity,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 241, no. 1-2, pp. 49–61, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. A. Wietzke and J. Welsh, “Phytoestrogen regulation of a Vitamin D3 receptor promoter and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 actions in human breast cancer cells,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 149–157, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. A. Gilad, O. Tirosh, and B. Schwartz, “Phytoestrogen regulate transcription and translation of vitamin D receptor in colon cancer cells,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 387–398, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. Yin, J. Ni, M. Chen, Y. Guo, and S. Yeh, “RRR-α-vitamin E succinate potentiates the antitumor effect of calcitriol in prostate cancer without overt side effects,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 190–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Álvarez, W. Bourguet, H. Gronemeyer, and A. R. de Lera, “Retinoic acid receptor modulators: a perspective on recent advances and promises,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. X. Wang and G. P. Studzinski, “Expression of MAP3 kinase COT1 is up-regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in parallel with activated c-jun during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 121, no. 1-2, pp. 395–398, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. S. Meng, H. Khoury, J. E. Dick, and M. D. Minden, “Oncogenic potential of the transcription factor LYL1 in acute myeloblastic leukemia,” Leukemia, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1941–1947, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Giampaolo, N. Felli, D. Diverio et al., “Expression pattern of HOXB6 homeobox gene in myelomonocytic differentiation and acute myeloid leukemia,” Leukemia, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1293–1301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. P. Dwivedi, C. S. Hii, A. Ferrante et al., “Role of MAP kinases in the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced transactivation of the rat cytochrome P450c24 (CYP24) promoter: specific functions for ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 33, pp. 29643–29653, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. W. Cheung, N. Gibbons, D. W. Johnson, and D. L. Nicol, “Silibinin—a promising new treatment for cancer,” Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 186–195, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. Deep and R. Agarwal, “Antimetastatic efficacy of silibinin: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential against cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 447–463, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus