Table of Contents
Metal-Based Drugs
Volume 1 (1994), Issue 5-6, Pages 445-458
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/MBD.1994.445

Stimulation, Recording Potential and Antimicrobial Medical Catheter Coatings

1Electrical and Computer Eng. - Biomedical Eng. and Science Institute, Drexel University, 19104, PA, USA
2Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Easton, MD, USA
3Siemens Medical System, PA, USA

Copyright © 1994 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Biocompatibility of electrodes for stimulation are difficult to maintain homeostasis. Noble metal stimulating electrodes which are normally biocompatible on keratinized tissue become very non-biocompatible when they are interfaced with nonkeratinized tissue in an area such as the oral cavity. Composite electrodes have been made biocompatible in the oral cavity even at current densities larger than 1 μA/mm2. Electrodes used in potential readings require that the anodic and cathodic polarization remain minimal. Silver-silver chloride electrodes are minimal. Silver-silver chloride electrodes are not always reversible. The range of pH, voltages and current densities when silver-silver chloride are not reversible are presented. Recently at Drexel University reliable silver coatings inside and outside of medical catheters have been fabricated to act as antimicrobial to a variety of bacteria. Noble and nonnoble metals have been combined in coatings with silver to enhance the antimicrobial action.