Article of the Year 2020
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): Two Potential Targets for COVID-19 TreatmentRead the full article
Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules
Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.
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Effect of Garlic Organic Sulfides on Gene Expression Profiling in HepG2 Cells and Its Biological Function Analysis by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis System and Bio-Plex-Based Assays
Garlic organic sulfides are dietary bioactive components with multiple biofunctions to prevent chronic diseases/inflammation and promote human health. DADS (diallyl disulfide), DATS (diallyl trisulfide), and DTS (diallyl tetrasulfide) are typical organic sulfides with similar structures from garlic. However, the structure-activity relationship of garlic organic sulfides remained unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS, DATS, and DTS on the gene expression profiling of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by application of microarray and specialized analysis software, GO, Bio-Plex-based cytokines assay and IPA and analyze their structure-activity relationship according to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic-related properties. According to the microarray data, with the increase of S atom in garlic organic sulfides, its biological activity was gradually enhanced. In the general catalog of GO, garlic organic sulfides mainly affect biological process, molecular function, and cellular component. RT-qPCR results indicated that the microarray data is trustworthy, and the structure-activity analysis data found that more sulfur atoms have more powerful properties; thus, microarray data of DTS was preceded to the subsequent IPA analysis. The results of IPA analysis showed that the top 5 signaling pathways and molecular functions were disturbed by DTS; the molecular functions with the highest scores affected by DTS are cancer, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation, which imply that the occurrence or metabolism of these diseases is related to the differential expression of the above-mentioned related genes and the activation of signaling channels, and the core of the most significant molecular network is inflammation. Finally, the results found that the secretions of 6 cytokines in macrophages were significantly inhibited by DTS treatment. This is the first study that analyzed the structure-activity relationship of garlic organic sulfides, which will provide useful genetic information for its multi-biofunction and promote their clinical application in the near future.
Sanse Powder Essential Oil Nanoemulsion Negatively Regulates TRPA1 by AMPK/mTOR Signaling in Synovitis: Knee Osteoarthritis Rat Model and Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte Isolates
Synovitis is the primary driving factor for the occurrence and development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and plays a crucial role during this process. Our previous works revealed that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channels mediate the amplification of KOA synovitis. In recent years, essential oils have been proved to have blocking effect on transient receptor potential channels. Meanwhile, the therapeutic effect of Sanse Powder on KOA synovitis has been confirmed in clinical trials and basic studies; although, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, Sanse Powder essential oil nanoemulsion (SP-NEs) was prepared, and then chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and stability were investigated. Besides, both in MIA-induced KOA rats and in LPS-stimulated FLSs, we investigated whether SP-NES could alleviate KOA synovitis by interfering with AMP-activated protein kinase- (AMPK-) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an energy sensing pathway proved to negatively regulate the TRPA1. Our research shows that the top three substances in SP-NEs were tumerone, delta-cadinene, and Ar-tumerone, which accounted for 51.62% of the total, and should be considered as the main pharmacodynamic ingredient. Less inflammatory cell infiltration and type I collagen deposition were found in the synovial tissue of KOA rats treated with SP-NEs, as well as the downregulated expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and TRPA1. Besides, SP-NEs increased the phosphorylation level of AMPK and decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR in the KOA model, and SP-NEs also upregulated expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and PPARγ coactivator-1α and downstream signaling molecules of AMPK-mTOR in vivo and in vitro. To conclude, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine for external use which is effective in treating synovitis of KOA was extracted and prepared into essential oil nanoemulsion with stable properties in the present study. It may alleviate synovitis in experimental KOA through the negative regulation of TRPA1 by AMPK-mTOR signaling.
The Signaling Pathway of PGE2 and Its Regulatory Role in T Cell Differentiation
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator derived from the fatty acid arachidonic acid. As an essential inflammatory factor, PGE2 has a critical impact on immune regulation through the prostanoid E (EP) receptor pathway. T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, play crucial roles in the adaptive immune response. Previous studies have shown that PGE2 is involved in regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation and inflammatory cytokine production via the EP receptor pathway, thereby affecting the development of diseases mediated by CD4+ T cells. In this review, we summarize the signaling pathway of PGE2 and describe the relationship between PGE2 and T cell differentiation. Hence, this review may provide important evidence for immune therapies and may even promote the development of biomedicines.
Ataxin-10 Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Endothelial Inflammation via Suppressing Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
Endothelial inflammation is a crucial event in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Here, we identify Ataxin-10 protein as a novel negative modulator of endothelial activation by suppressing IRF-1 transcription activity. The protein level of Ataxin-10 is relatively higher in human vascular endothelial cells, which can be significantly suppressed by TNF-α in both HUVECs and HLMECs. Overexpression of Ataxin-10 markedly inhibited the mRNA expressions of VCAM-1 and several cytokines including MCP-1, CXCL-1, CCL-5, and TNF-α; thus, it can also suppress monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Accordingly, Ataxin-10 silencing promoted endothelial inflammation. However, Ataxin-10 did not affect the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway stimulated by TNF-α in HUVECs. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that Ataxin-10 can directly bind to interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1). Upon TNF-α stimulation, Ataxin-10 promoted the cytoplasmic localization of IRF-1, which inhibited the transcription of VCAM-1. Moreover, knockdown of IRF-1 can eliminate the effect of Ataxin-10 on the expression of VCAM-1 in HUVECs induced by TNF-α. Taken together, these results indicate that Ataxin-10 inhibits endothelial cell activation and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for some vascular inflammatory-related diseases such as atherosclerosis.
Cholinergic Elicitation Prevents Ventricular Remodeling via Alleviations of Myocardial Mitochondrial Injury Linked to Inflammation in Ischemia-Induced Chronic Heart Failure Rats
Background. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is implicated in cardioprotection in chronic heart failure (CHF) by downregulating inflammation response. Mitochondrial injuries play an important role in ventricular remodeling of the CHF process. Herein, we aim to investigate whether CAP elicitation prevents ventricular remodeling in CHF by protecting myocardial mitochondrial injuries and its underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results. CHF models were established by ligation of anterior descending artery for 5 weeks. Postoperative survival rats were assigned into 5 groups: the sham group (sham, ), CHF group (CHF, ), Vag group (CHF+vagotomy, ), PNU group (CHF+PNU-282987 for 4 weeks, ), and Vag+PNU group (CHF+vagotomy+PNU-282987 for 4 weeks, ). The antiventricular remodeling effect of cholinergic elicitation was evaluated in vivo, and H9C2 cells were selected for the TNF-α gradient stimulation experiment in vitro. In vivo, CAP agitated by PNU-282987 alleviated the left ventricular dysfunction and inhibited the energy metabolism remodeling. Further, cholinergic elicitation increased myocardium ATP levels and reduced systemic inflammation. CAP induction alleviates macrophage infiltration and cardiac fibrosis, of which the effect is counteracted by vagotomy. Myocardial mitochondrial injuries were ameliorated by CAP activation, including the reserved ultrastructural integrity, declining ROS overload, reduced myocardial apoptosis, and enhanced mitochondrial fusion. In vitro, TNF-α intervention significantly exacerbated the mitochondrial damage in H9C2 cells. Conclusion. CAP elicitation effectively improves ischemic ventricular remodeling by suppressing systemic and cardiac inflammatory response, attenuating cardiac fibrosis and potentially alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction linked to hyperinflammation reaction.
High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Physical Function, Prevents Muscle Loss, and Modulates Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle of Cerebral Ischemic Mice
Although skeletal muscle is the main effector organ largely accounting for disability after stroke, considerably less attention is paid to the secondary abnormalities of stroke-related skeletal muscle loss. It is necessary to explore the mechanism of muscle atrophy after stroke and further develop effective rehabilitation strategy. Here, we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity aerobic training (MOD) on physical function, muscle mass, and stroke-related gene expression profile of skeletal muscle. After the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was successfully made, the blood lactate threshold corresponding speed () and maximum speed () were measured. Different intensity training protocols (; ) were carried out for 3 weeks beginning at 7 days after MCAO in the MOD and HIIT groups, respectively. We found that both HIIT and MOD prevented stroke-related gastrocnemius muscle mass loss in MCAO mice. HIIT was more beneficial than MOD for improvements in muscle strength, motor coordination, walking competency, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, HIIT was superior to MOD in terms of reducing lipid accumulation, levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in paretic gastrocnemius, and improving peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, level of IL-10. Additionally, RNA-seq analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes among HIIT, MOD, and MCAO groups were highly associated with signaling pathways involved in inflammatory response, more specifically the I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. Following the outcome, we further investigated the infiltrating immune cells abundant in paretic muscles. The results showed that HIIT modulated macrophage activation by downregulating CD86+ (M1 type) macrophages and upregulating CD163+ (M2 type) macrophages via inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB signaling pathway and exerting an anti-inflammatory effect in paretic skeletal muscle. It is expected that these data will provide novel insights into the mechanisms and potential targets underlying muscle wasting in stroke.