Mediators of Inflammation
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Acceptance rate24%
Submission to final decision76 days
Acceptance to publication21 days
CiteScore7.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.540
Impact Factor4.529

Comprehensively Analyze the Prognosis Significance and Immune Implication of PTPRO in Lung Adenocarcinoma

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 Journal profile

Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Review Article

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Various Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders—An Evidence Mapping Based on Quantified Evidence

Background and Object. There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the significant role of gut microbiota in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. We performed an evidence mapping to review the association between different microbiota and these disorders and assessed the strength of evidence for these associations. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Epistemonikos to identify systematic reviews and meta-analysis (SRs). We searched for neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anorexia nervosa (AN), bipolar disorder (BD), eating disorder (ED), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), multiple sclerosis (MS), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), spinal cord injury (SCI), schizophrenia, and stroke. We used A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2) to evaluate the quality of included SRs. We also created an evidence map showing the role of gut microbiota in neurological diseases and the certainty of the evidence. Results. In total, 42 studies were included in this evidence mapping. Most findings were obtained from observational studies. According to the AMSTAR-2 assessment, 21 SRs scored “critically low” in terms of methodological quality, 16 SR scored “low,” and 5 SR scored “moderate.” A total of 15 diseases have been investigated for the potential association between gut microbiome alpha diversity and disease, with the Shannon index and Simpson index being the most widely studied. A total of 12 diseases were investigated for potential link between beta diversity and disease. At the phylum level, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were more researched. At the genus level, Prevotella, Coprococcus, Parabacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Escherichia Shigella, Alistipes, Sutteralla, Veillonella, Odoribacter, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Dialister, and Blautia were more researched. Some diseases have been found to have specific flora changes, and some diseases have been found to have common intestinal microbiological changes. Conclusion. We found varied levels of evidence for the associations between gut microbiota and neurological diseases; some gut microbiota increased the risk of neurological diseases, whereas others showed evidence of benefit that gut microbiota might be promising therapeutic targets for such diseases.

Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Jinwujiangu Prescription on Peripheral Blood Osteoclasts in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Relevant Molecular Mechanism

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized with high recurrence, high disability, poor prognosis, and long treatment cycles. Versus western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has the traits of definite efficacy, low toxicity, and side effects in the treatment of RA. Moreover, traditional Chinese medicine also has the advantages of multiple targets, multiple links, and multiple approaches. This study was committed to exploring the effect of Jinwujiangu prescription on peripheral blood osteoclasts in those patients with RA and relevant molecular mechanisms. We first identified 159 common targets by online pharmacology, and there were correlations among these targets; besides, the main signaling pathways involved were inclusive TNF signaling pathway, rheumatoid arthritis, IL-17 signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, etc. Through experimental verification, we found that PBMC cells extracted from human peripheral blood could be successfully induced into osteoclasts, and Jinwujiangu prescription inhibited the generation of osteoclasts from PBMCs of RA patients. CCK-8 and flow cytometry showed that osteoclast viability was significantly decreased and osteoclast apoptosis was significantly increased in the HIF-1α interference group; low-, medium-, and high-dose Jinwujiangu prescription groups; sinapine group; and hydroxychloroquine control group. Moreover, Jinwujiangu prescription and sinapine could inhibit the production of cytokines in peripheral blood osteoclasts and inhibit autophagy in RA patients. The expression level of mTOR was significantly increased in both Jinwu middle- and high-dose groups. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sinapine, the active target in Jinwujiangu prescription, can act as a HIF-1α inhibitor; activate the mTOR pathway; downregulate the level of autophagy rate, ATG5, beclin-1, and LC3 expression; and inhibit the occurrence of autophagy. The trial registration number of the study is KYW2021010.

Research Article

Improved Antitumor Effect of NK Cells Activated by Neutrophils in a Bone Marrow Transplant Model

The licensing process mediated by inhibitory receptors of the Ly49 C-type lectin superfamily that recognizes self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in mice is essential for the proper antitumor function of natural killer (NK) cells. Several models for NK cell licensing can be exploited for adoptive immunotherapy for cancer. However, the appropriate adoptive transfer setting to induce efficient graft versus tumor/leukemia effects remains elusive, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In our previous experiment, we showed that intraperitoneal neutrophil administration with their corresponding NK receptor ligand-activated NK cells using congenic mice without HSCT. In this experiment, we demonstrate enhanced antitumor effects of licensed NK cells induced by weekly intraperitoneal injections of irradiated neutrophil-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in recipient mice bearing lymphoma. Bone marrow transplantation was performed using BALB/c mice (H-2d) as the recipient and B10 mice (H-2b) as the donor. The tumor was A20, a BALB/c-derived lymphoma cell line, which was injected subcutaneously into the recipient at the same time as the HSCT. Acute graft versus host disease was not exacerbated in this murine MHC class I mismatched HSCT setting. The intraperitoneal injection of PBMNCs activated a transient licensing of NK subsets expressed Ly49G2, its corresponding NK receptor ligand to H-2d, and reduced A20 tumor growth in the recipient after HSCT. Pathological examination revealed that increased donor-oriented NK1.1+NK cells migrated into the recipient tumors, depending on neutrophil counts in the administered PBMNCs. Collectively, our data reveal a pivotal role of neutrophils in promoting NK cell effector functions and adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

Review Article

The Abundance and Function of Neutrophils in the Endometriosis Systemic and Pelvic Microenvironment

Endometriosis is a common inflammatory illness in which endometrial tissue grows outside the uterine cavity. Immune dysfunction is now widely acknowledged as the primary cause of endometriosis. The immune cell population represented by neutrophils is thought to play an essential role in the etiology, pathophysiology, and associated clinical outcome. There is growing evidence that neutrophils have a role in chronic and aseptic inflammatory diseases, and endometriosis patients have increased levels of neutrophils in plasma, peritoneal fluid, and ectopic endometrium. Here, we sought to review the function of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, with an emphasis on the role of neutrophils in regulating endometrial angiogenesis and the local inflammatory microenvironment.

Research Article

Liraglutide Attenuates Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Modulating the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

Liraglutide has been extensively applied in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and also has hepatoprotective effects. However, the role of liraglutide treatment on liver injury in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and its underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, diabetes was initiated in experimental animals by single-dose intraperitoneal inoculation of STZ. Forty female C57BL/6J mice were equally assigned into five groups: diabetic group, insulin+diabetic group, liraglutide+diabetic group, insulin+liraglutide+diabetic group, and control group for eight weeks. Diabetic mice exhibited a significantly elevated blood glucose level and decreased body weight, and morphological changes of increased steatosis and apoptosis were observed in the liver compared with the control. Furthermore, a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and the proapoptotic proteins caspase-3 and Bax were observed in the livers of diabetic mice, together with marked increases in antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, all of which were significantly mitigated by treatment with liraglutide, insulin, and their combinations. Interestingly, liraglutide monotherapy showed better efficacy in ameliorating liver injury in T1DM mice than insulin monotherapy, similar to the combined drug therapy. Furthermore, the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-associated molecules was upregulated in the liver of mice treated with liraglutide or insulin. The results of the present study suggested that liraglutide improves T1DM-induced liver injury and may have important implications for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with T1DM.

Research Article

The Long Noncoding RNA Gm9866/Nuclear Factor-κB Axis Promotes Macrophage Polarization

Macrophages are a type of immune cells with high levels of plasticity and heterogeneity. They can polarize into M1 or M2 functional phenotypes. These two phenotypes exhibit a dynamic balance during polarization-related diseases and play opposing roles. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in biological processes such as cell proliferation, death, and differentiation; however, how long noncoding RNAs affect the cellular functionality of macrophages remains to be studied. Long noncoding RNA Gm9866 was found to be closely related to macrophage polarization through bioinformatics analysis. In this study, by conducting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, it was observed that long noncoding RNA Gm9866 expression significantly increased after treatment with interleukin-4 but significantly decreased after treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that long noncoding RNA Gm9866 was expressed mainly in the nucleus. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that overexpression of long noncoding RNA Gm9866 in RAW264.7 cells further promoted the expression of M2 markers MRC1 (macrophage mannose receptor 1) and MRC2 (macrophage mannose receptor 2). Western blotting analysis demonstrated inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression. EdU (5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine) and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) staining assays revealed that overexpression of long noncoding RNA Gm9866 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. These findings thus indicated that long noncoding RNA Gm9866 promoted macrophage polarization and inhibited the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Thus, long noncoding RNA Gm9866 may serve as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for polarization-related diseases such as infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, liver fibrosis, and tumors.

Mediators of Inflammation
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate24%
Submission to final decision76 days
Acceptance to publication21 days
CiteScore7.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.540
Impact Factor4.529
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.