Article of the Year 2020
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): Two Potential Targets for COVID-19 TreatmentRead the full article
Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules
Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.
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Endangered Lymphocytes: The Effects of Alloxan and Streptozotocin on Immune Cells in Type 1 Induced Diabetes
Alloxan (ALX) and streptozotocin (STZ) are extensively used to induce type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animal models. This study is aimed at evaluating the differences in immune parameters caused by ALX and STZ. T1D was induced either with ALX or with STZ, and the animals were followed for up to 180 days. Both ALX and STZ induced a decrease in the total number of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, with an increase in granulocytes when compared to control mice (CT). STZ-treated mice also exhibited an increase in neutrophils and a reduction in the lymphocyte percentage in the bone marrow. In addition, while the STZ-treated group showed a decrease in total CD3+, CD4-CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus and CD19+ B lymphocytes in the pancreas and spleen, the ALX group showed an increase in CD4-CD8+ and CD19+ only in the thymus. Basal levels of splenic interleukin- (IL-) 1β and pancreatic IL-6 in the STZ group were decreased. Both diabetic groups showed atrophy of the thymic medulla and degeneration of pancreatic islets of Langerhans composed of inflammatory infiltration and hyperemia with vasodilation. ALX-treated mice showed a decrease in reticuloendothelial cells, enhanced lymphocyte/thymocyte cell death, and increased number of Hassall’s corpuscles. Reduced in vitro activation of splenic lymphocytes was found in the STZ-treated group. Furthermore, mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) showed a more intense antigen-specific paw edema response in the STZ-treated group, while production of anti-OVA IgG1 antibodies was similar in both groups. Thereby, important changes in immune cell parameters in vivo and in vitro were found at an early stage of T1D in the STZ-treated group, whereas alterations in the ALX-treated group were mostly found in the chronic phase of T1D, including increased mortality rates. These findings suggest that the effects of ALX and STZ influenced, at different times, lymphoid organs and their cell populations.
Influence of Gestational Hormones on the Bacteria-Induced Cytokine Response in Periodontitis
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting structures of teeth. The presence of a bacterial biofilm initiates a destructive inflammatory process orchestrated by various inflammatory mediators, most notably proinflammatory cytokines, which are upregulated in the gingival crevicular fluid, leading to the formation of periodontal pockets. This represents a well-characterized microbial change during the transition from periodontal health to periodontitis; interestingly, the gestational condition increases the risk and severity of periodontal disease. Although the influence of periodontitis on pregnancy has been extensively reviewed, the relationship between pregnancy and the development/evolution of periodontitis has been little studied compared to the effect of periodontitis on adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review is aimed at summarizing the findings on the pregnancy-proinflammatory cytokine relationship and discussing its possible involvement in the development of periodontitis. We address (1) an overview of periodontal disease, (2) the immune response and possible involvement of proinflammatory cytokines in the development of periodontitis, (3) how bone tissue remodelling takes place with an emphasis on the involvement of the inflammatory response and metalloproteinases during periodontitis, and (4) the influence of hormonal profile during pregnancy on the development of periodontitis. Finally, we believe this review may be helpful for designing immunotherapies based on the stage of pregnancy to control the severity and pathology of periodontal disease.
Increased IgE Deposition in Appendicular Tissue Specimens Is Compatible with a Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction in Acute Appendicitis
Background. IgE mediates type I hypersensitivity reaction and can be found in the mucosa of organs affected by allergy. Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common disease, but its etiology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated IgE deposition in histological sections of AA samples to test the hypothesis that an allergic reaction may substantially contribute to the pathophysiology of AA. Materials and Methods. In a retrospective study, we assessed the presence of IgE in appendicular specimens of histologically confirmed appendicitis and in the control group, comprised of negative appendicitis and incidental appendectomies, using a monoclonal antibody against human IgE. Samples from 134 appendectomies were included: 38 phlegmonous and 27 gangrenous appendicitis from the study group and 52 incidental appendectomies and 17 negative appendicitis from the control group. The slides were visualized by light microscopy, and a standard procedure was used to manually count the positive IgE staining cells. Results. IgE staining was present in the cells of all but 5 appendicular specimens. We found a significantly increased number of IgE-positive cells in phlegmonous AA () when compared to incidental appendectomy () (; when adjusted for age and gender). No difference was found for gangrenous appendicitis. Discussion. The presence of IgE supports the contribution of an allergic reaction for the pathophysiology of phlegmonous appendicitis. The reduced number of IgE staining cells in gangrenous appendicitis can be due to tissue destruction, or, as been claimed by others, gangrenous appendicitis is a distinct entity, with different etiology. Conclusion. In this study, phlegmonous appendicitis had the highest number of IgE-positive appendicular cells. These findings suggest that an allergic reaction can contribute to the pathophysiology of AA, opening a novel possibility for preventive measures in a disease that typically requires surgery.
The Upregulation of COX2 in Human Degenerated Nucleus Pulposus: The Association of Inflammation with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is an important risk factor of low back pain. We previously found upregulated markers of fibrosis, the late stage of chronic inflammation, in degenerated IVD with a small number of clinical specimens. Here, we aimed to study on a larger scale the association of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an inflammation and/or pain marker, with IVDD. This study involved 107 LBP participants. The IVD degeneration level was graded on a 1–5 scale according to the Pfirrmann classification system. Discs at grades 1-3 were further grouped as white discs with grades 4-5 as black discs. We recorded baseline information about age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes history, smoking history, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their association with IVDD was statistically analyzed. The expression level of COX2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The total integrated COX2 optical density (IOD), number of COX2-positive cells, and total cell number of each image were counted and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software. The IOD and number of COX2-positive cells were divided by the total cell number to obtain COX2 expression density (IOD/cell) and COX2 positivity (cell+/cell). As a result, among the baseline information investigated, only age was found to have a significant association with IVDD. The IOD/cell was found to be significantly increased from grade 2 to grade 5, as well as in black discs compared to white discs. The cell+/cell displayed the same trend that it increased in highly degenerative discs compared to their counterparts. In conclusion, the expression of COX2 is associated with IVDD, which highlights COX2 as a biomarker for IVD degeneration and indicates the involvement of inflammation and pain signaling in IVDD.
Interleukin-1 Links Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Pathophysiology in Mixed-Pattern Psoriasis
Autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases are characterized by an oversensitive immune system with loss of the physiological endogenous regulation, involving multifactorial self-reactive pathological mechanisms of mono- or polygenic nature. Failure in regulatory mechanisms triggers a complex network of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity, leading to coexistent autoinflammatory and autoimmune processes. Sustained exposure to a trigger or a genetic alteration at the level of the receptors of the natural immune system may lead to abnormal activation of the innate immune system, adaptive system activation, loss of self-tolerance, and systemic inflammation. The IL-1 family members critically activate and regulate innate and adaptive immune responses’ diversity and plasticity in autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory conditions. The IL-23/IL-17 axis is key in the communication between innate immunity (IL-23-producing myeloid cells) and adaptive immunity (Th17- and IL-17-expressing CD8+ T cells). In psoriasis, these cytokines are decisive to the different clinical presentations, whether as plaque psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris), generalized pustular psoriasis (pustular psoriasis), or mixed forms. These forms reflect a gradient between autoimmune pathophysiology with predominant adaptive immune response and autoinflammatory pathophysiology with predominant innate immune response.
Salivary Biomarkers in Lung Cancer
A very low percentage of lung cancer (LC) cases are discovered at an early and treatable stage of the disease, leading to an abysmally low 5-year survival rate. This underscores the immediate necessity for improved diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers for LC. Biopsied lung tissue, blood, and plasma are common sources used for LC diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. A growing number of studies have reported saliva to be a useful biological sample for early and noninvasive detection of oral and systemic diseases. Nevertheless, salivary biomarker discovery remains underresearched. Here, we have compiled the available literature to provide an overview of the current understanding of salivary markers for LC detection and provided perspectives for future clinical significance. Valuable markers with diagnostic and prognostic potentials in LC have been discovered in saliva, including metabolic (catalase activity, triene conjugates, and Schiff bases), inflammatory (interleukin 10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), proteomic (haptoglobin, zinc-α-2-glycoprotein, and calprotectin), genomic (epidermal growth factor receptor), and microbial candidates (Veillonella and Streptococcus). In combination, with each other and with other established screening methods, these salivary markers could be useful for improving early detection of the disease and ultimately improve the survival odds of LC patients. The existing literature suggests that saliva is a promising biological sample for identification and validation of biomarkers in LC, but how saliva can be utilized most effectively in a clinical setting for LC management is still under investigation.