Homa Darmani, James Crossan, Sarah D. Mclellan, Dominic Meek, Adam Curtis, "Expression of nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor-beta in crush-injured tendon and synovium", Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 13, Article ID 230479, 7 pages, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1080/09629350400008844
Expression of nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor-beta in crush-injured tendon and synovium
THIS study examined the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in macrophage infiltrates within crush-injured digital flexor tendon and synovium of control rats and rats treated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mg/kg). Release of TGF-β from organ cultures of tendon, muscle, and synovium, and the effects of L-NAME treatment (in vitro and in vivo), on adhesion of peritoneal macrophages to epitenon monolayers were also investigated. The results showed that during normal tendon healing the levels of TGF-β are high at first and gradually decrease after 3 weeks of injury to slightly above control uninjured levels. However, when L-NAME was administered at the time of injury, the macrophage infiltrates were expressing high levels of TGF-β even at 5 weeks after the injury, with no evidence of reduction. In the standard injury, iNOS activity was greatest at the acute phase of the inflammatory response and then gradually returned to normal. Treatment with L-NAME, however, resulted in inhibition of iNOS activity at 3 days and a reduction in the activity at the later time points examined after injury. We also found greatly increased levels of adhesion of peritoneal macrophages from L-NAME-treated rats to epitenon monolayers in vitro, which reflect a chronic imbalance in expression of TGF-β, which is overexpressed, and nitric oxide, which is underexpressed. The results of the current study show that formation of nitric oxide is an important event in the course of tendon healing since its inhibition results in chronic inflammation and fibrosis due to an imbalance in TGF-β expression in vivo.
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