Mediators of Inflammation

Mediators of Inflammation / 2006 / Article

Research Communication | Open Access

Volume 2006 |Article ID 85432 | 5 pages |

Serum Endothelin-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Levels in the Newborns With Respiratory Distress

Received06 Mar 2006
Revised03 Jul 2006
Accepted04 Jul 2006
Published20 Sep 2006


The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ET-1 and TGF-β in the newborns with respiratory distress. In this study, newborns with respiratory distress hospitalized into the Newborn Intensive Care Unit were included. The highest values of ET-1 and TGF-β were obtained from newborns with diagnosis as meconium aspiration syndrome (5.70±5.87 pg/mL and 3.75±1.94 pg/mL, resp) in the sample obtained in the first six hours after birth, and these are statistically different from control group (P<.05). Also, same results were obtained for newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (3.37±1.59 pg/mL and 2.05±0.98 pg/mL, resp). After oxygen treatment, ET-1 values obtained in the first six hours of life were decreased regularly in the following days (P<.05). In the differentiating diagnosis of the respiratory distress of newborns, the investigation of ET-1 and TGF-β levels is meaningful. The ET-1 levels investigated in the first six hours is more useful in determining the prognosis, and repeating ET-1 levels in the following days is more meaningful to determine clinical response.


  1. J A Whitsett, W R Rice, B B Warner et al., “Acute respiratory disorders,” in Avery's Neonatology Pathophysiology & Management of The Newborn, M G MacDonald, M D Mullett, and M MK Seshia, Eds., pp. 553–577, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, 6th edition, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  2. P Kumar and P SS Kiran, “Changing trends in the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS),” Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  3. M Yanagisawa, H Kurihara, S Kimura et al., “A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells,” Nature, vol. 332, no. 6163, pp. 411–415, 1988. View at: Google Scholar
  4. E R Levin, “Endothelins,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 6, pp. 356–363, 1995. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. D J Stewart, R D Levy, P Cernacek, and D Langleben, “Increased plasma endothelin-1 in pulmonary hypertension: marker or mediator of disease?,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 464–469, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  6. M Yoshibayashi, K Nishioka, K Nakao et al., “Plasma endothelin concentrations in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart defects. Evidence for increased production of endothelin in pulmonary circulation,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 2280–2285, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  7. K Spiropoulos, G Trakada, E Nikolaou et al., “Endothelin-1 levels in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 983–989, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  8. K A Fagan, I F McMurtry, and D M Rodman, “Role of endothelin-1 in lung disease,” Respiratory Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 90–101, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. G C Blobe, W P Schiemann, and H F Lodish, “Role of transforming growth factor β in human disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 18, pp. 1350–1358, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | β%20in%20human%20disease&author=G C Blobe&author=W P Schiemann&author=&author=H F Lodish&publication_year=2000" target="_blank">Google Scholar
  10. S S Arcot, D W Lipke, M N Gillespie, and J W Olson, “Alterations of growth factor transcripts in rat lungs during development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1086–1091, 1993. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. T Miyauchi, R Yorikane, S Sakai et al., “Contribution of endogenous endothelin-1 to the progression of cardiopulmonary alterations in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension,” Circulation Research, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 887–897, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  12. B A Markewitz, I S Farrukh, Y Chen, Y Li, and J R Michael, “Regulation of endothelin-1 synthesis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells: effects of transforming growth factor-β and hypoxia,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 200–206, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | β%20and%20hypoxia&author=B A Markewitz&author=I S Farrukh&author=Y Chen&author=Y Li&author=&author=J R Michael&publication_year=2001" target="_blank">Google Scholar
  13. S Andersson, T A Merritt, A Orpana, L Viinikka, and O Ylikorkala, “High endothelin-1 in the airways of preterm infants is associated with less severe respiratory distress during the early postnatal period,” Pediatrics, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 545–547, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  14. S Sugo, N Minamino, H Shoji et al., “Regulation of endothelin-1 production in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 25–40, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. J L Ballard, J C Khoury, K Wedig, L Wang, B L Eilers-Walsman, and R Lipp, “New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 417–423, 1991. View at: Google Scholar
  16. P Kaapa, P Kero, H Ekblad, R Erkkola, and O Arjamaa, “Plasma endothelin-1 in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome,” Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae, vol. 83, no. suppl 208, pp. 110–112, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  17. A A Rosenberg, J Kennaugh, S L Koppenhafer, M Loomis, B A Chatfield, and S H Abman, “Elevated immunoreactive endothelin-1 levels in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 109–114, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  18. C Y Kuo, Y H Chou, R Lien, and P H Yang, “Study of plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in Taiwanese neonates with respiratory distress,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 239–244, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  19. T Kojima, Y Isozaki-Fukuda, M Takedatsu, A Ono, Y Hirata, and Y Kobayashi, “Plasma endothelin-1 like immunoreactivity levels in neonates,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 151, no. 12, pp. 913–915, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  20. A CW Benjamin, R C Silveira, and R S Procianoy, “Umbilical cord blood and neonatal endothelin-1 levels in preterm newborns with and without respiratory distress syndrome,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1417–1422, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  21. M De Vroomen, R H Lopes Cardozo, P Steendijk, M Frölich, J Baan, and F Van Bel, “Endothelin-1 plasma concentration increases in the early phase of pulmonary hypertension development during respiratory distress syndrome: a study in newborn lambs,” Early Human Development, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 9–21, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  22. R J Fahy, F Lichtenberger, C B McKeegan, G J Nuovo, C B Marsh, and M D Wewers, “The acute respiratory distress syndrome: a role for transforming growth factor-beta 1,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 499–503, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  23. B Jonsson, Y-H Li, G Noack, A Brauner, and K Tullus, “Downregulatory cytokines in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid from infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1375–1380, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  24. S Kotecha, A Wangoo, M Silverman, and R J Shaw, “Increase in the concentration of transforming growth factor beta-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid before development of chronic lung disease of prematurity,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 464–469, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  25. J O Niu, U K Munshi, M M Siddiq, and L A Parton, “Early increase in endothelin-1 in tracheal aspirates of preterm infants: correlation with bronchopulmonary dysplasia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 965–970, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  26. D Alonso and M W Radomski, “The nitric oxide-endothelin-1 connection,” Heart Failure Reviews, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 107–115, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2006 Derya Benzer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

0 Views | 0 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder