Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2007, Article ID 92196, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/92196
Clinical Study

Serum TNF-Alpha Level Predicts Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Children

1Department of Immunology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Dębinki 1, Gdańsk 80-210, Poland
2Diabetological Department, Clinic of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-210, Poland
3Department and Clinic of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-210, Poland

Received 16 November 2006; Revised 28 February 2007; Accepted 1 March 2007

Copyright © 2007 Katarzyna Zorena et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. T. Schram, N. Chaturvedi, C. Schalkwijk et al., “Vascular risk factors and markers of endothelial function as determinants of inflammatory markers in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 2165–2173, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  2. F. Giorgino, L. Laviola, P. Cavallo Perin, B. Solnica, J. Fuller, and N. Chaturvedi, “Factors associated with progression to macroalbuminuria in microalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study,” Diabetologia, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1020–1028, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. H. Lund-Andersen, “Mechanisms for monitoring changes in retinal status following therapeutic intervention in diabetic retinopathy,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 47, supplement 2, pp. S270–S277, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. K. E. Schmid, B. Neumaier-Ammerer, U. Stolba, and S. Binder, “Effect of grid laser photocoagulation in diffuse diabetic macular edema in correlation to glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c),” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 244, no. 11, pp. 1446–1452, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. M. Abu el Asrar, D. Maimone, P. H. Morse, S. Gregory, and A. T. Reder, “Cytokines in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 731–736, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Kojima, T. Yamada, and M. Tamai, “Quantitative analysis of interleukin-6 in vitreous from patients with proliferative vitreoretinal diseases,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. T. Yuuki, T. Kanda, Y. Kimura et al., “Inflammatory cytokines in vitreous fluid and serum of patients with diabetic vitreoretinopathy,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 257–259, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Doganay, C. Evereklioglu, H. Er et al., “Comparison of serum NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 levels with grades of retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Eye, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 163–170, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. R. J. McCarter, J. M. Hempe, R. Gomez, and S. A. Chalew, “Biological variation in HbA1c predicts risk of retinopathy and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1259–1264, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Yokoi, S.-I. Yamagishi, M. Takeuchi et al., “Elevations of AGE and vascular endothelial growth factor with decreased total antioxidant status in the vitreous fluid of diabetic patients with retinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 673–675, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. H. Sugimoto, K. Shikata, J. Wada, S. Horiuchi, and H. Makino, “Advanced glycation end products-cytokine-nitric oxide sequence pathway in the development of diabetic nephropathy: aminoguanidine ameliorates the overexpression of tumour necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase in diabetic rat glomeruli,” Diabetologia, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 878–886, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. H. Rothe, V. Burkart, A. Faust, and H. Kolb, “Interleukin-12 gene expression is associated with rapid development of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice,” Diabetologia, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 119–122, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  13. American Diabetes Association, “Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1183–1197, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  14. American Diabetes Association, “Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 3160–3167, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  15. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Rerearch Group, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms: ETDRS report number 11,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, supplement 5, pp. 807–822, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. Dogan, S. Akarsu, B. Ustundag, E. Yilmaz, and M. K. Gurgoze, “Serum IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 in insulin-dependent diabetic children,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2006, Article ID 59206, p. 6, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. H.-C. Lo, S.-C. Lin, and Y.-M. Wang, “The relationship among serum cytokines, chemokine, nitric oxide, and leptin in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 666–672, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Romano, M. Pomilio, S. Vigneri et al., “Endothelial perturbation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1674–1678, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Lorini, M. de Amici, G. d'Annunzio, L. Vitali, and A. Scaramuzza, “Low serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in insulin-dependent diabetic children,” Hormone Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 206–209, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Balasubramanyam, M. Rema, and C. Premanand, “Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy,” Current Science, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 1506–1514, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. E. Szmitko, C.-H. Wang, R. D. Weisel, J. R. de Almeida, T. J. Anderson, and S. Verma, “New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation—part I,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 16, pp. 1917–1923, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. B. Kulseng, L. Vatten, and T. Espevik, “Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in sera from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: relations to duration and complications of disease,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 36, no. 1-2, pp. 99–105, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. H. Funatsu, H. Yamashita, H. Noma, T. Mimura, T. Yamashita, and S. Hori, “Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of diabetics with macular edema,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. E. Shimizu, H. Funatsu, H. Yamashita, T. Yamashita, and S. Hori, “Plasma level of interleukin-6 is an indicator for predicting diabetic macular edema,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 78–83, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. E. Głowacka, M. Banasik, P. Lewkowicz, and H. Tchórzewski, “The effect of LPS on neutrophils from patients with high risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in relation to IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 production and apoptosis in vitro,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 210–217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. G. Winkler, O. Dworak, F. Salamon, D. Salamon, G. Speer, and K. Cseh, “Increased interleukin-12 plasma concentrations in both, insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 488, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar