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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2009, Article ID 102406, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Immunohistochemical Localization of the Bradykinin B1 and B2 Receptors in Human Nasal Mucosa

Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, S 1 W 16, Chu-ku Sapporo, 060-8543, Japan

Received 21 January 2009; Accepted 11 March 2009

Academic Editor: Oreste Gualillo

Copyright © 2009 Hideaki Shirasaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bradykinin (BK) has been tobe thought a potent mediator involved in allergic rhinitis because BK was recovered from the nasal lavage fluid of allergic rhinitis patients after allergen provocation and BK receptor antagonists relief nasal allergic symptoms. Two mammalian BK receptor subtypes, B1 and B2, have been defined based on their pharmacological properties. We investigated the localization of these receptors by immunohistochemistry. Human turbinates were obtained after turbinectomy from 12 patients with nasal obstruction refractory to medical therapy. The immunohistochemical study revealed that epithelial cells, submucosal glands, fibroblast, vascular smooth muscle, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages showed immunoreactivity for both B1 and B2 receptors. The B2 receptor expression was found in peripheral nerve fibers, whereas the B1 expression was not observed in nerves. The results may have an important clinical implication for understanding the differential roles of BK receptor subtypes on upper airway diseases such as allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis.