Table 1: Inflammatory mediators of AKI.

Caspases
Caspase-1

Alpha-MSH

Cytokines
(IFN-γ)
(TGF- )
(TNF- )
(IL-6)
(IL-10)
(IL-18)

Chemokines
(CXCL1 (also known as KC or IL-8 in mice))
(CX3CL1 (also known as fractalkine))
(CCR1 (Chemokine receptor-1) ligands MIP-1alpha and RANTES)
(MCP-1)
(MIP-2)

Adhesion molecules
(ICAM-1)
(P-selectin, E-selectin)
(CD147)

Complement
 Alternative pathway
 C3A

TLRs
 TLR-2
 TLR-4
 TLR-9

Neutrophils

Lymphocytes
 CD4
 CD8
 B cells
 Tregs
 NK cells

Macrophages

Dendritic cells