Mediators of Inflammation

Mediators of Inflammation / 2009 / Article

Comments to Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator

  • Yong-Song Guan |
  •  Article ID 426214 |
  •  Published 12 Oct 2009
  • | View Article

Authors' Reply to Comments from Dr. Guan

  • Ken-ichiro Inoue | Hirohisa Takano |
  •  Article ID 215935 |
  •  Published 24 Dec 2009

Letter to the Editor | Open Access

Volume 2009 |Article ID 215935 | 2 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/215935

Authors' Reply to Comments from Dr. Guan

Received10 Sep 2009
Accepted13 Sep 2009
Published24 Dec 2009

Abstract


To the Editor. We thank Dr. Guan for his interest in our recent article [1]. He has raised some comments regarding possible potential of MT and zinc as therapeutic tools for inflammatory diseases. As he mentions, simply inducing and/or enhancing metallothionein (MT) is harmful, particularly in physiological condition. We want to emphasize that for severe (lethal) inflammatory conditions such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) including acute lung injury and fulminant hepatitis in humans, in which proper therapeutic strategy has not been established yet, our findings using MT knockout mice may open doors to the alternative therapeutic target. Of course, there seems to be a large volume of problems and issues to be overwhelmed/addressed as Guan points out; thus, considering this, we had concluded with toning down that “implicating MT-induction/enhancement and/or zinc supplementation to induce/enhance MT as possible therapeutic options for inflammatory diseases, although additional research is needed to conclude its clinical utility.’’

As for zinc supplementation, it should be taken granted that too much zinc is harmful to health in physiological state, as Guan insists. Experimentally, however, zinc supplementation shows therapeutic and preventional effects against several pathologies such as diabetic nephropathy [2] parasite infection [3], H. pylori-related gastritis [4], as well as sepsis [5]. In addition, it was reported that zinc deficiency increases organ damage and mortality of sepsis in vivo [6], suggesting that zinc supplementation can protect from the pathophysiology in the disease. Therefore, it is attractive to speculate that zinc supplementation could be alternative therapeutic option against refractory diseases including severe inflammatory ones such as SIRS, if one carefully monitors zinc concentration.

The role of MT in carcinogenesis remains controversial as Guan describes. MT (−/−) mice are reportedly susceptible to metal- and chemical-induced carcinogenesis [7, 8]. Carcinogenesis involves much mechanistic pathways dependent on stimuli and/or affected cells/organs; thus, we understand that additional in vivo tests and careful clinical trials are required to employ the molecule (MT) to therapeutic options in view of tumorgenesis. Unfortunately, in addition, we had failed to obtain recombinant mouse MT in our previous studies, to validate pharmaceutical rescue for MT (−/−) mice. We want to conduct the experiments in the future.

Finally, we hope we will continue basic research regarding MT in pathophysiological conditions paying attention to the points Dr. Guan states in his comments.

Ken-ichiro Inoue
Hirohisa Takano

References

  1. K.-I. Inoue, H. Takano, A. Shimada, and M. Satoh, “Metallothionein as an anti-inflammatory mediator,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2009, Article ID 101659, 7 pages, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. Y. Tang, Q. Yang, J. Lu et al., “Zinc supplementation partially prevents renal pathological changes in diabetic rats,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. In press. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. V. Brazão, L. C. Caetano, M. Del Vecchio Filipin, M. Paula Alonso Toldo, L. N. Caetano, and J. C. do Prado Jr., “Zinc supplementation increases resistance to experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 32–37, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. C. D. Tran, M. A. F. Campbell, Y. Kolev, S. Chamberlain, H. Q. Huynh, and R. N. Butler, “Short-term zinc supplementation attenuates Helicobacter felis-induced gastritis in the mouse,” Journal of Infection, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 417–424, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. C. J. Krones, B. Klosterhalfen, N. Butz et al., “Effect of zinc pretreatment on pulmonary endothelial cells in vitro and pulmonary function in a porcine model of endotoxemia,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 251–256, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. D. L. Knoell, M. W. Julian, S. Bao et al., “Zinc deficiency increases organ damage and mortality in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1380–1388, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. M. P. Waalkes, J. Liu, R. A. Goyer, and B. A. Diwan, “Metallothionein-I/II double knockout mice are hypersensitive to lead-induced kidney carcinogenesis: role of inclusion body formation,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 21, pp. 7766–7772, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. J. S. Suzuki, N. Nishimura, B. Zhang et al., “Metallothionein deficiency enhances skin carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradcanoylphorbol-13-acetate in metallothionein-null mice,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1123–1132, 2003. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2009 Ken-ichiro Inoue and Hirohisa Takano. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

428 Views | 287 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.