Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2009, Article ID 705379, 7 pages
Research Article

Inhibitory Effects of Ketamine on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation

1Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, 24205 Taipei, Taiwan
2Department of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, 11031 Taipei, Taiwan
3Department of Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan

Received 5 September 2008; Accepted 24 January 2009

Academic Editor: Vera L. Petricevich

Copyright © 2009 Yi Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Gehrmann, Y. Matsumoto, and G. W. Kreutzberg, “Microglia: intrinsic immuneffector cell of the brain,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 269–287, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. W. J. Streit, “Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS,” Glia, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 133–139, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. G. R. John, S. C. Lee, X. Song, M. Rivieccio, and C. F. Brosnan, “IL-1-regulated responses in astrocytes: relevance to injury and recovery,” Glia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 161–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. C. Chao, S. Hu, T. W. Molitor, E. G. Shaskan, and P. K. Peterson, “Activated microglia mediate neuronal cell injury via a nitric oxide mechanism,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 2736–2741, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. González-Scarano and G. Baltuch, “Microglia as mediators of inflammatory and degenerative diseases,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 22, pp. 219–240, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. Y. S. Kim and T. H. Joh, “Microglia, major player in the brain inflammation: their roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease,” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 333–347, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. C. Bone, “The pathogenesis of sepsis,” Annals of International Medicine, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 457–469, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. R. Sheu, S. H. Chao, M. H. Yen, and T. F. Huang, “In vivo antithrombotic effect of triflavin, an Arg-Gly-Asp containing peptide on platelet plug formation in mesenteric microvessels of mice,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 617–621, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  9. J.-R. Sheu, W.-C. Hung, C.-H. Wu et al., “Reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced thrombocytopenia by triflavin in a rat model of septicemia,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 23, pp. 3056–3062, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  10. N. R. Bhat and F. Fan, “Adenovirus infection induces microglial activation: involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways,” Brain Research, vol. 948, no. 1-2, pp. 93–101, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. V. Waetzig, K. Czeloth, U. Hidding et al., “c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) mediate pro-inflammatory actions of microglia,” Glia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 235–246, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. R. Park, A. R. Manara, L. Mendel, and P. E. Bateman, “Ketamine infusion. Its use as a sedative, inotrope and bronchodilator in a critically ill patient,” Anaesthesia, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 980–983, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. Y. Chang, T.-L. Chen, G.-J. Wu et al., “Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet activity of ketamine in human platelets,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 764–772, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. T. Kawasaki, M. Ogata, C. Kawasaki, J.-I. Ogata, Y. Inoue, and A. Shigematsu, “Ketamine suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production in human whole blood in vitro,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 665–669, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. I. Takenaka, M. Ogata, K. Koga, T. Matsumoto, and A. Shigematsu, “Ketamine suppresses endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production in mice,” Anesthesiology, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 402–408, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Shimaoka, T. Iida, A. Ohara et al., “Ketamine inhibits nitric oxide production in mouse-activated macrophage-like cells,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 238–242, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  17. Y. S. Shibakawa, Y. Sasaki, Y. Goshima et al., “Effects of ketamine and propofol on inflammatory responses of primary glial cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 803–810, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. G. Hsiao, T. H. Fong, N. H. Tzu, K. H. Lin, D. S. Chou, and J. R. Sheu, “A potent antioxidant, lycopene, affords neuroprotection against microglia activation and focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” In Vivo, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 351–356, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  19. T. Mosmann, “Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 55–63, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Bal-Price and G. C. Brown, “Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide from activated glia-inhibiting neuronal respiration, causing glutamate release and excitotoxicity,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 6480–6491, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  21. E. C. Hirsch, T. Breidert, E. Rousselet, S. Hunot, A. Hartmann, and P. P. Michel, “The role of glial reaction and inflammation in Parkinson's disease,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 991, pp. 214–228, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. F. Domino, E. K. Zsigmond, and L. E. Domino, “Plasma levels of ketamine and two of its metabolites in surgical patients using a gas chromatographic mass fragmentographic assay,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 87–92, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. F. Lois and M. De Kock, “Something new about ketamine for pediatric anesthesia?” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 340–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. K. Nakajima, Y. Tohyama, S. Kohsaka, and T. Kurihara, “Protein kinase Cα requirement in the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is linked to the induction of tumor necrosis factor α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 205–214, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. F. Bugaud, F. Nadal-Wollbold, S. Lévy-Toledano, J. P. Rosa, and M. Bryckaert, “Regulation of c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and extracellular-signal regulated kinase in human platelets,” Blood, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 3800–3805, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. J.-Z. Zhang, L. Jing, F.-Y. Guo, Y. Ma, and Y.-L. Wang, “Inhibitory effect of ketamine on phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 following brain ischemia and reperfusion in rats with hyperglycemia,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 59, no. 3-4, pp. 227–235, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar