Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 142458, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/142458
Clinical Study

Elevation of High-Mobility Group Protein Box-1 in Serum Correlates with Severity of Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

1Department of Neurology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Changjiang Branch Road no. 10, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042, China
2Department of Radiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042, China
3College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
4Department of Neurosurgery, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400042, China

Received 9 August 2010; Accepted 7 September 2010

Academic Editor: Steven Kunkel

Copyright © 2010 Yu Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. A. Lapchak and D. M. Araujo, “Advances in hemorrhagic stroke therapy: conventional and novel approaches,” Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 389–406, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Wang and S. Doré, “Inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 894–908, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Xi, R. F. Keep, and J. T. Hoff, “Mechanisms of brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 53–63, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Hua, R. F. Keep, J. T. Hoff, and G. Xi, “Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage: the role of thrombin and iron,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 2, supplement, pp. 759–762, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. H. Goodwin, C. Sanders, and E. W. Johns, “A new group of chromatin associated proteins with a high content of acidic and basic amino acids,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. O. Thomas, “HMG 1 and 2: architectural DNA-binding proteins,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 395–401, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Holland, “Revised nomenclature for high mobility group (HMG) chromosomal proteins,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 152–153, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Yang, H. Wang, C. J. Czura, and K. J. Tracey, “The cytokine activity of HMGB1,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Wang, O. Bloom, M. Zhang et al., “HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5425, pp. 248–251, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J.-B. Kim, S. C. Joon, Y.-M. Yu et al., “HMGB1, a novel cytokine-like mediator linking acute neuronal death and delayed neuroinflammation in the postischemic brain,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 6413–6421, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Nakahara, R. Tsuruta, T. Kaneko et al., “High-mobility group box 1 protein in CSF of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 362–368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Q. Zhong, Q. W. Yang, J. Q. Li, J. C. Li, J. Xiang, and J. Z. Wang, “Upregulated expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in brain tissue surrounding hematoma correlates with neurologic deficits in experimental cerebral hemorrhage mice,” Acta Academiae Medicinae Militaris Tertiae, vol. 31, no. 19, pp. 1894–1896, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  13. N. P. De La Ossa, T. Sobrino, Y. Silva et al., “Iron-related brain damage in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 810–813, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Kaste, H. Kwiecinski, T. Steiner et al., “Recommendations for the management of intracranial haemorrhage—part I: spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 294–316, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. P. Lyden, T. Brott, B. Tilley et al., “Improved reliability of the NIH stroke scale using video training,” Stroke, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2220–2226, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Tejima, B.-Q. Zhao, K. Tsuji et al., “Astrocytic induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and edema in brain hemorrhage,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 460–468, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. T. Figueiredo, P. L. Fernandez, D. S. Mourao-Sa et al., “Characterization of heme as activator of toll-like receptor 4,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 28, pp. 20221–20229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. R. Wagner, F. R. Sharp, T. D. Ardizzone, A. Lu, and J. F. Clark, “Heme and iron metabolism: role in cerebral hemorrhage,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 629–652, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus