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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010, Article ID 513948, 20 pages
Review Article

Release of Inflammatory Mediators by Human Adipose Tissue Is Enhanced in Obesity and Primarily by the Nonfat Cells: A Review

Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA

Received 3 November 2009; Revised 27 January 2010; Accepted 23 February 2010

Academic Editor: Giamila Fantuzzi

Copyright © 2010 John N. Fain. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper considers the role of putative adipokines that might be involved in the enhanced inflammatory response of human adipose tissue seen in obesity. Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGF 1, TNF , IL-1 , PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue. In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue. The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed. The conclusion is that the release of many inflammatory adipokines by adipose tissue is enhanced in obese humans.