Table 1: Demographics, body composition and distribution, serum adipokines and ghrelin levels in women with systemic autoimmune disease, in patients with Sjögren syndrome and healthy women (results are given as mean ± SEM; 𝑃 1 : Man Whitney test between patients with systemic autoimmune disease and healthy controls; 𝑃 2 : Man Whitney test between patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and healthy controls).

Systemic autoimmune diseases whole series (N = 15)Sjögren syndrome (N = 7)Healthy controls (N = 15) 𝑃 1 𝑃 2

Age (years)57.7 ± 3.559.5 ± 3.754.5 ± 2.1NSNS
Disease duration (years)6.5 ± 1.44.7 ± 1.1
Clinical manifestationsPolyarthritis/ arthralgia: N = 14 Myalgia N = 2 Dermatological manifestations N = 2 Sicca syndrome N =7 Peripheral neuropathy N = 1Pulmonary involvement N = 2 Raynaud syndrome N = 3 Renal disease N = 0
BMI (kg/m2)29.0 ± 1.932.03 ± 3.525.4 ± 1.1NSNS
Corticosteroid dosage (mg/day)6.6 ± 1.35.7 ± 2.2
Cumulative corticosteroid dose (mg)11018 ± 44819192.8 ± 5349
ESR (mm/H)16.3 ± 2.617.8 ± 4.614.5 ± 5.3NSNS
CRP (mg/L)6.5 ± 1.95 ± 25.7 ± 1.8NSNS
IL-6 (pg/mL)9.02 ±3.696.7 ± 3.20.02 ± 0.02.025.05
Glycemia (mmol/L)4.8 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.24.6 ± 0.1NSNS
Insulin (μIU/L)10.3 ± 2.0512.8 ± 3.98.6 ± 1.1NSNS
HOMA-IR2.14 ± 0.372.6 ± 0.61.49 ± 0.15NSNS
Total cholesterol (g/L)1.88 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.21.83 ± 0.1NSNS
LDL cholesterol (g/L)1.02 ± 0.11.05 ± 0.21.03 ± 0.1NSNS
HDL cholesterol (g/L)0.61 ± 0.040.7 ± 0.050.57 ± 0.04NSNS
Leptin (ng/mL)25.2 ± 5.631.1 ± 10.614.4 ± 3.4NSNS
Leptin /fat mass (ng/mL/Kg)0.72 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.20.82 ± 0.1NSNS
Adiponectin (μg/mL)16.3 ± 1.617.8 ± 2.69.7 ± 0.6.01.04
Ghrelin (pg/mL)1118 ± 1271249. 1 ± 220.51012 ± 56NSNS
Fat mass (g)30140 ± 341133554.1 ± 5573.121518 ± 1862NSNS
Lean mass (g)40822 ± 134842475.7 ± 2128.547011 ± 1908NSNS
Adiposity (%)40.9 ± 2.342.8 ± 2.830.8 ± 1.8NSNS
Fat in the android region (g)2681 ± 4213099 ± 741.11951 ± 222NSNS
Fat in the gynoid region (g)5710 ± 5416282.9 ± 794.23905 ± 340NSNS

(ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; BMI: body mass index; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment index; NS: nonsignificant).