Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Erratum

An erratum for this article has been published. To view the erratum, please click here.

Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2011, Article ID 785265, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/785265
Research Article

NF- B Signaling in the Brain of Autistic Subjects

Department of Neurochemistry, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, New York, NY 10314, USA

Received 23 June 2011; Accepted 18 August 2011

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Valacchi

Copyright © 2011 Mazhar Malik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. R. Ritvo, B. J. Freeman, A. B. Scheibel et al., “Lower Purkinje cell counts in the cerebella of four autistic subjects: initial findings of the UCLA-NSAC autopsy research report,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 862–866, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. L. Bauman and T. L. Kemper, “Neuroanatomic observation of the brain in autism,” in The Neurobiology of Autism, pp. 119–145, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. H. Fatemi, A. R. Halt, J. M. Stary, G. M. Realmuto, and M. Jalali-Mousavi, “Reduction in anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in autistic cerebellum,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 929–933, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. H. Fatemi and A. R. Halt, “Altered levels of Bcl2 and p53 proteins in parietal cortex reflect deranged apoptotic regulation in autism,” Synapse, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 281–284, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. S. Abrahams and D. H. Geschwind, “Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 341–355, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. E. Folstein and B. Rosen-Sheidley, “Genetics of autism: complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 943–955, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. J. Bolivar, S. R. Walters, and J. L. Phoenix, “Assessing autism-like behavior in mice: variations in social interactions among inbred strains,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. S. Moy, J. J. Nadler, N. B. Young et al., “Mouse behavioral tasks relevant to autism: phenotypes of 10 inbred strains,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 4–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. G. McFarlane, G. K. Kusek, M. Yang, J. L. Phoenix, V. J. Bolivar, and J. N. Crawley, “Autism-like behavioral phenotypes in BTBR T+tf/J mice,” Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 152–163, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. L. Silverman, S. S. Tolu, C. L. Barkan, and J. N. Crawley, “Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 976–989, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. L. Scattoni, J. Crawley, and L. Ricceri, “Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 508–515, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Yang, M. L. Scattoni, V. Zhodzishsky, T. Chen, H. Caldwell, and W. S. Young, “Social approach behaviors are similar on conventional versus reverse lighting cycles, and in replications across cohorts, in BTBR T+ tf/J, C57BL/6J, and vasopressin receptor 1B mutant mice,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 1, p. 1, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Yang, V. Zhodzishsky, and J. N. Crawley, “Social deficits in BTBR T + tf/J mice are unchanged by cross-fostering with C57BL/6J mothers,” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 515–521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Jyonouchi, S. Sun, and H. Le, “Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine production associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental regression,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 120, no. 1-2, pp. 170–179, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Jyonouchi, S. Sun, and N. Itokazu, “Innate immunity associated with inflammatory responses and cytokine production against common dietary proteins in patients with autism spectrum disorder,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 76–84, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. K. Singh, “Plasma increase of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma. Pathological significance in autism,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 66, no. 1-2, pp. 143–145, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Croonenberghs, E. Bosmans, D. Deboutte, G. Kenis, and M. Maes, “Activation of the inflammatory response system in autism,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. L. Vargas, C. Nascimbene, C. Krishnan, A. W. Zimmerman, and C. A. Pardo, “Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 67–81, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. A. Molloy, A. L. Morrow, J. Meinzen-Derr et al., “Elevated cytokine levels in children with autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 172, no. 1-2, pp. 198–205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Ashwood and A. J. Wakefield, “Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 173, no. 1-2, pp. 126–134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. G. Chez, Q. Burton, T. Dowling, M. Chang, P. Khanna, and C. Kramer, “Memantine as adjunctive therapy in children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders: an observation of initial clinical response and maintenance tolerability,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 574–579, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Li, A. Chauhan, A. M. Sheikh et al., “Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 207, no. 1-2, pp. 111–116, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Araghi-Niknam and S. H. Fatemi, “Levels of Bcl-2 and P53 are altered in superior frontal and cerebellar cortices of autistic subjects,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 945–952, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Ghosh and M. S. Hayden, “New regulators of NF-κB in inflammation,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 837–848, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. S. Baldwin, “The NF-κB and IκB proteins: new discoveries and insights,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 14, pp. 649–681, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. Li and G. R. Stark, “NFκB-dependent signaling pathways,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 285–296, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Chen, V. Castranova, and X. Shi, “New insights into the role of nuclear factor-κB in cell growth regulation,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 387–397, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Caamaño and C. A. Hunter, “NF-κB family of transcription factors: central regulators of innate and adaptive immune functions,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 414–429, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Karin, Y. Cao, F. R. Greten, and Z. W. Li, “NF-κB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 301–310, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Q. Li and I. M. Verma, “NF-κB regulation in the immune system,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 725–734, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Vermeulen, G. De Wilde, S. Notebaert, W. Vanden Berghe, and G. Haegeman, “Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 5-6, pp. 963–970, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. L. Pahl, “Activators and target genes of Rel/NF-κB transcription factors,” Oncogene, vol. 18, no. 49, pp. 6853–6866, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Verma, I. Chaudhury, D. Kumar, and R. H. Das, “Silencing of TNF-α receptors coordinately suppresses TNF-α expression through NF-κB activation blockade in THP-1 macrophage,” FEBS Letters, vol. 583, no. 17, pp. 2968–2974, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Fan, R. Mao, Y. Zhao et al., “Tumor necrosis factor-α induces RelA degradation via ubiquitination at lysine 195 to prevent excessive nuclear factor-κB activation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 43, pp. 29290–29297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. M. Sheikh, M. Malik, G. Wen et al., “BDNF-Akt-Bcl2 antiapoptotic signaling pathway is compromised in the brain of autistic subjects,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 2641–2647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. K. Smith, R. I. Krohn, G. T. Hermanson et al., “Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  37. C. M. Stoscheck, “Quantitation of protein,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 182, pp. 50–68, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. A. Beg and D. Baltimore, “An essential role for NF-κB in preventing TNF-α-induced cell death,” Science, vol. 274, no. 5288, pp. 782–784, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Viatour, M. P. Merville, V. Bours, and A. Chariot, “Phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Shukla, G. T. MacLennan, P. Fu et al., “Nuclear factor-κB/p65 (Rel A) is constitutively activated in human prostate adenocarcinoma and correlates with disease progression,” Neoplasia, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 390–400, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Karin and A. Lin, “NF-κB at the crossroads of life and death,” Nature Immunology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 221–227, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Y. Chung, K. J. Jung, and B. P. Yu, “Molecular inflammation as an underlying mechanism of aging: the anti-inflammatory action of calorie restriction,” in Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Health, pp. 387–419, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  43. K. F. Izban, M. Ergin, J. Z. Qin et al., “Constitutive expression of NF-κB is a characteristic feature of mycosis fungoides: implications for apoptosis resistance and pathogenesis,” Human Pathology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1482–1490, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Grimm, M. K. A. Bauer, P. A. Baeuerle, and K. Schulze-Osthoff, “Bcl-2 down-regulates the activity of transcription factor NF-κB induced upon apoptosis,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. S. Go, J. E. Seo, K. C. Kim et al., “Valproic acid inhibits neural progenitor cell death by activation of NF-B signaling pathway and up-regulation of Bcl-XL,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 18, no. 1, article 48, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. M. J. May and S. Ghosh, “Signal transduction through NF-κB,” Immunology Today, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 80–88, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus