Table 1: Cytokines involved in Diabetic Kidney Inflammation.

CytokineRole in Diabetic Kidney Inflammation

ICAM-1Adhesion molecule facilitating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and infiltration into diabetic kidneys
VCAM-1Adhesion molecule facilitating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and infiltration into diabetic kidneys
MCP-1Chemoattractant which promotes macrophage recruitment into diabetic kidneys
TNF- Promotes production of reactive oxygen species, induces cell injury, and increases endothelial permeability
IL-1Stimulates expression of cell adhesion molecules and profibrotic growth factors and increases endothelial permeability
IL-6Promotes mesangial proliferation, glomerular hypertrophy, fibronectin production and increases endothelial permeability
IL-18Increases production of other cytokines (ICAM-1, IL-1, TNF- ) and induces apoptosis of endothelial cells
AdiponectinReduces oxidative stress, production of TNF- , and leukocyte-endothelial adhesion
LeptinInduces oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertrophy, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and impairs endothelial function
ResistinPromotes expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, endothelin-1, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells